William C. Gause

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Important insights have recently been gained in our understanding of how host immune responses mediate resistance to parasitic helminths and control associated pathological responses. Although similar cells and cytokines are evoked in response to infection by helminths as diverse as nematodes and schistosomes, the components of the response that mediate(More)
Although primary and memory responses against bacteria and viruses have been studied extensively, T helper type 2 (T(H)2) effector mechanisms leading to host protection against helminthic parasites remain elusive. Examination of the intestinal epithelial submucosa of mice after primary and secondary infections by a natural gastrointestinal parasite revealed(More)
Studies with rodents infected with Trichinella spiralis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Nippostronglyus brasiliensis, and Trichuris muris have provided considerable information about immune mechanisms that protect against parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes. Four generalizations can be made: 1. CD4+ T cells are critical for host protection; 2. IL-12 and(More)
Helminths induce potent T helper 2 (TH2)-type immune responses that can mediate worm expulsion, but the role of this response in controlling the acute tissue damage caused by migrating multicellular parasites through vital tissues remains uncertain. We used a helminth infection model in which parasitic nematode larvae migrate transiently through the lung,(More)
IL-4 and IL-13 promote gastrointestinal worm expulsion in part through effects on nonlymphoid cells, such as intestinal smooth muscle cells. The roles of Stat6 in IL-4-, IL-13-, and parasitic nematode-induced effects on small intestinal smooth muscle contractility were investigated in BALB/c wild-type and Stat6-deficient mice treated with a long-lasting(More)
B cells can mediate protective responses against nematode parasites by supporting Th2 cell development and/or by producing Abs. To examine this, B cell-deficient mice were inoculated with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis or Heligmosomoides polygyrus. B cell-deficient and wild type mice showed similar elevations in Th2 cytokines and worm expulsion after N.(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate immune function through the assessment of lymphocyte subpopulations (total T cells, major histocompatibility complex [MHC] I- and II-restricted T cells, B cells, NK cells, MHC II-restricted T-cell-derived naive and memory cells, and several MHC I-restricted T-cell activation markers) and the measurement of cytokine(More)
Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the parent-into-F1 model are mediated by predominantly cellular or humoral immune responses, respectively, and are strikingly different entities by 2 wk of disease. Both forms of GVHD, however, evolve from a common starting point, i.e., donor CD4+ T cell recognition of host alloantigen and IL-2(More)
Granulomas induced by parasite eggs are the primary lesions in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Temporal analysis of cytokine mRNA expression in lung tissue containing synchronized granulomas demonstrated a Th0-like pattern of lymphokine expression. IFN-gamma, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 were the primary cytokines induced by day 1 in developing lung(More)