William C. Engeland

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Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is characterized by a diurnal rhythm with an AM nadir and PM peak. Splanchnic nerve transection disrupts the diurnal rhythm in plasma corticosterone; however, there is a controversy as to whether the nerve-mediated effect is 1) via inhibition in the AM vs. excitation in the PM, or 2) involves changes in(More)
It is increasingly clear that significant differential regulation of pituitary and adrenal gland activation exists, leading to a dissociation of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosteroid secretion during fetal, postnatal and adult life. An increasing number of preclinical and clinical studies report dissociation of adrenocorticotropic hormone(More)
The adrenal gland is an essential stress-responsive organ that is part of both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympatho-adrenomedullary system. Chronic stress exposure commonly increases adrenal weight, but it is not known to what extent this growth is due to cellular hyperplasia or hypertrophy and whether it is subregion specific. Moreover,(More)
Adrenal cortical secretion of glucocorticoids is an essential adaptive response of an organism to stress. Although the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulates the adrenal cortex via release of ACTH, there is strong evidence supporting a role for sympathetic innervation in modulating adrenal glucocorticoid secretion. The dissociation between changes in(More)
An ultradian rhythm in adrenal secretion of corticosterone has been described in awake rats using intra-adrenal microdialysis. To determine the role of the autonomic innervation of the adrenal on the expression of the corticosterone rhythm, adrenal extracellular fluid was sampled by intra-adrenal microdialysis in intact (CTRL) and splanchnicectomized(More)
Forty-eight hours of water deprivation (WD) in conscious rats results in a paradoxical increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Previous studies suggest this may be due to increased sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). However, this remains to be investigated in conscious, freely behaving animals. The purpose of this study was to determine, in conscious rats,(More)
Plasma vasopressin (VP) and corticosterone have each been shown to be rapidly suppressed after drinking in different models of osmotic stimulation in rats; however, no causal relationship between these responses has been investigated. Studies were performed to determine if plasma VP and corticosterone are reduced in parallel after drinking and if(More)
Adrenomedullary secretion of methionine (Met)-enkephalin and of leucine (Leu)-enkephalin was measured in awake trained dogs subjected to 10 or 20% hemorrhage. Enkephalin secretory rates increased in proportion to the magnitude of hemorrhage with the ratio of Met-enkephalin to Leu-enkephalin being approximately 4:1. Arterial concentrations of enkephalins(More)
Adrenal adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and corticosterone responses to exogenous ACTH were found to be about 2.5 times greater in the evening (at lights off) than in the morning (at lights on) in rats. The rhythm in adrenal responsiveness to ACTH was found to persist in rats treated with dexamethasone 15 and 3 h before exogenous ACTH (in the(More)