William C Blackwelder

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BACKGROUND Diarrhoeal diseases cause illness and death among children younger than 5 years in low-income countries. We designed the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) to identify the aetiology and population-based burden of paediatric diarrhoeal disease in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. METHODS The GEMS is a 3-year, prospective, age-stratified,(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in adults with sickle cell disease, the mechanism of its development, and its prospective prognostic significance are unknown. METHODS We performed Doppler echocardiographic assessments of pulmonary-artery systolic pressure in 195 consecutive patients (82 men and 113 women; mean [+/-SD] age, 36+/-12(More)
When designing a clinical trial to show whether a new or experimental therapy is as effective as a standard therapy (but not necessarily more effective), the usual null hypothesis of equality is inappropriate and leads to logical difficulties. Since therapies cannot be shown to be literally equivalent, the appropriate null hypothesis is that the standard(More)
An analytical study is conducted of the properties of statistical tests to detect linkage between a disease locus and a very polymorphic marker locus when data on sib pairs are available. In most instances the most powerful test is the test based on the mean number of marker alleles shared identical by descent by the two members of a sib pair, and the most(More)
Our understanding of the humoral immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV) is limited because the virus can be studied only in humans and chimpanzees and because previously described neutralization assays have not been robust or simple to perform. Nevertheless, epidemiologic and laboratory studies suggested that neutralizing Ab to HCV might be important in(More)
CONTEXT Sickle cell disease is characterized by a state of nitric oxide resistance and limited bioavailability of l-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthesis. We hypothesized that increased arginase activity and dysregulated arginine metabolism contribute to endothelial dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension, and patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE To(More)
BACKGROUND Concern about both safety and efficacy has made the use of whole-cell pertussis vaccines controversial. In some European countries, including Italy, the rate of vaccination against pertussis is low. METHODS We conducted a double-blind trial in Italy in which infants were randomly assigned to vaccination at two, four, and six months of age with(More)
BACKGROUND Observational studies report that influenza vaccination reduces winter mortality risk from any cause by 50% among the elderly. Influenza vaccination coverage among elderly persons (> or =65 years) in the United States increased from between 15% and 20% before 1980 to 65% in 2001. Unexpectedly, estimates of influenza-related mortality in this age(More)
BACKGROUND Diarrhea remains a common complaint among US patients who seek medical attention. METHODS We performed a prospective study to determine the etiology of diarrheal illness among patients and control subjects of all ages presenting to the emergency departments and outpatient clinics of 2 large academic hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland, and New(More)
In 1984 a large prospective study of gay and bisexual men was begun to elucidate the natural history of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. At two successive semiannual examinations, clinical or hematologic abnormalities were found up to 13 times more often among HIV-seropositive men (n = 1611) than HIV-seronegative men (n = 2646). More than(More)