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We determine the contribution of composite additive, dominance, and epistatic effects to the genetic divergence of photoperiodic response along latitudinal, altitudinal, and longitudinal gradients in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Joint scaling tests of crosses between populations showed widespread epistasis as well as additive and dominance(More)
Many plants and animals use the length of day or photoperiod to cue their seasonal patterns of development, reproduction, dormancy, and migration. Among temperate arthropods, the median or critical photoperiod increases with latitude or altitude. Concomitantly, in beetles, moths, mites, flies, and mosquitoes, there is a declining expression of a rhythmic,(More)
Expression of the circadian rhythm gene timeless was investigated in the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii (Coq.), and was found to vary with time of day, instar of diapause, and latitude of origin. The temporal pattern of timeless expression differed between the two diapausing instars and was significantly higher in southern (38-40 degrees N) than(More)
Only model organisms live in a world of endless summer. Fitness at temperate latitudes reflects the ability of organisms in nature to exploit the favorable season, to mitigate the effects of the unfavorable season, and to make the timely switch from one life style to the other. Herein, we define fitness as Ry, the year-long cohort replacement rate across(More)
A wide variety of higher plants, vertebrates, and arthropods use the length of day to synchronize growth, development, reproduction , dormancy, and migration with the changing seasons. In the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii, critical photoperiod mediating the onset and maintenance of larval diapause has evolved about 10 standard deviations in mean(More)
The primary nonbiological result of recent rapid climate change is warming winter temperatures, particularly at northern latitudes, leading to longer growing seasons and new seasonal exigencies and opportunities. Biological responses reflect selection due to the earlier arrival of spring, the later arrival of fall, or the increasing length of the growing(More)
Examination of temperate and polar regions of Earth shows that the nonbiological world is exquisitely sensitive to the direct effects of temperature, whereas the biological world is largely organized by light. Herein, we discuss the use of day length by animals at physiological and genetic levels, beginning with a comparative experimental study that shows(More)
We measured the additive genetic variance within populations and the composite additive, dominance, and epistatic effects contributing to differentiation of photoperiodic response between two southern (ancestral) and each of four progressively more northern (derived) populations of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Critical photoperiod and its(More)
The ubiquity of endogenous, circadian (daily) clocks among eukaryotes has long been held as evidence that they serve an adaptive function, usually cited as the ability to properly time biological events in concordance with the daily cycling of the environment. Herein we test directly whether fitness is a function of the matching of the period of an(More)