William B. Toscano

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This report refers to a body of investigations performed in support of experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, and designed to counteract the symptoms of Space Adapatation Syndrome, which resemble those of motion sickness on Earth. For these supporting studies we examined the autonomic manifestations of earth-based motion sickness. Heart rate, respiration(More)
Although there is general agreement that a high degree of variability exists between subjects in their autonomic nervous system responses to motion sickness stimulation, very little evidence exists that examines the reproducibility of autonomic responses within subjects during motion sickness stimulation. Our objectives were to examine the reliability of(More)
As part of a program to develop a treatment for motion sickness based on self-regulation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity, this study examined the stability of an individual's pattern of ANS responses to motion sickness stimulation on repeated occasions. Motion sickness symptoms were induced in 58 people during 2 rotating chair tests.(More)
PURPOSE Intramuscular (i.m.) injections of promethazine in 25 mg or 50 mg dosages are commonly used to treat space motion sickness in astronauts. The present study examined the effects of i.m. injections of promethazine on performance, mood states, and motion sickness in humans. METHODS Subjects were 12 men, mean age 36 + 3.1, who participated in 1(More)
The purpose of this project was to use NASA technology to assist the US Army in the assessment of motion sickness incidences and effects on soldier performance and mood states within the Command and Control Vehicle (C2V). Specific objectives were (1) to determine if there was a significant difference between three internal configurations of the C2V and/or(More)
Intramuscular (i.m.) injections of promethazine in 25 mg or 50 mg dosages are commonly used to treat space motion sickness in astronauts. The present study examined the effects of i.m. injections of promethazine on neuropsychological performance, mood states, and motion sickness tolerance in humans. Twelve men, mean age 36 _+3.1, participated in one(More)
Motion sickness symptoms affect approximately 50% of the crew during space travel and are commonly treated with intramuscular injections of promethazine. The purpose of this paper is to compare the effectiveness of three treatments for motion sickness: intramuscular injections (i.m.) of promethazine, a physiological training method (autogenic-feedback(More)
Chronic gastric motility disorders have proven intractable to most traditional therapies. Twenty-six patients with chronic nausea and vomiting were treated with a behavioral technique, autonomic training (AT) with directed imagery (verbal instructions), to help facilitate physiological control. After treatment, gastrointestinal symptoms decreased by >30% in(More)
Studies have shown that autonomous mode behavior (AMB) is one cause of aircraft fatalities caused by pilot error. In AMB cases, the pilot is in a high state of psychological and physiological arousal and tends to focus on one problem, while ignoring more critical information. The following study, conducted under the auspices of the U.S. National(More)
oozing) generally required more clips than patients without active bleeding (visible vessels and fresh adhesive clots) [3.1 6 1.7 vs. 1.9 6 0.9, p 5 0.043]. Follow-up endoscopy five days after the original procedure showed no evidence of clip-induced tissue injury or impairment of Mallory-Weiss tears, and clips were well-retained. Endoscopy performed one to(More)