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We treated 93 children with nephropathic cystinosis with oral cysteamine (mean dose, 51.3 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) for up to 73 months. This agent is known to be effective in depleting cells of cystine. In our study, the mean cystine depletion from leukocytes was 82 percent. A historical control group of 55 children received either ascorbic(More)
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by arylsulfatase A (ARSA) deficiency. Patients with MLD exhibit progressive motor and cognitive impairment and die within a few years of symptom onset. We used a lentiviral vector to transfer a functional ARSA gene into hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from three(More)
We investigated the biochemical and clinical efficacy of dietary erucic acid (C22:1) therapy for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD). In a double-blind crossover study of patients who were on chronic oleic acid (C18:1) therapy, addition of erucic acid to the diet led to a further reduction in plasma hexacosanoic acid (C26:0) concentration. We treated 12(More)
Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder characterized by mental retardation, spasticity and ichthyosis. SLS patients have a profound deficiency in fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) activity. We have now cloned the human FALDH cDNA and show that it maps to the SLS locus on chromosome 17p11.2. Sequence analysis of FALDH(More)
Mutations in the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) gene cause Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS)-a disease characterized by mental retardation, spasticity, and congenital ichthyosis. To facilitate mutation analysis in SLS and to study the pathogenesis of FALDH deficiency, we have determined the structural organization and characterized expression of the(More)
Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the presence of congenital ichthyosis, mental retardation, and spasticity. The primary biochemical defect in SLS has recently been identified to be a deficiency of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH), which is a component of fatty alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase (FAO). We(More)
Very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) play important roles in membrane structure and cellular signaling, and their contribution to human health is increasingly recognized. Fatty acid elongases catalyze the first and rate-limiting step in VLCFA synthesis. Heterozygous mutations in ELOVL4, the gene encoding one of the elongases, are known to cause macular(More)
Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity, and deficient activity of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH). To define the molecular defects causing SLS, we performed mutation analysis of the FALDH gene in probands from 63 kindreds with SLS. Among these patients, 49 different(More)
Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an inherited neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene that encodes fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH), an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of fatty aldehyde to fatty acid. Affected patients display ichthyosis, mental retardation and spastic diplegia. More than 70 mutations in ALDH3A2 have been(More)
Substantial amounts of tetrahydrobiopterin and 6-methyltetrahydropterin can be detected in CSF when these pterins are given peripherally to patients with hyperphenylalaninemia due to defective biopterin synthesis. Results of this study suggest that administration of either of these pterins in proper doses may prove to be a treatment not only for the(More)