William B. L. Wong

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The goal of this study was to determine the changes that occur in surfactant-associated proteins in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and serum of patients at risk for ARDS and during the course of ARDS. We found that the concentrations of SP-A and SP-B were low in the BAL of patients at risk for ARDS before the onset of clinically defined lung injury,(More)
The catestatin fragment of chromogranin A is an endogenous inhibitor of nicotinic cholinergic transmission, functioning in negative feedback control of catecholamine secretion. We explored naturally occurring polymorphisms in the amino acid sequence of catestatin. Three human variants were identified: Gly364Ser, Pro370Leu, and Arg374Gln. Variants were(More)
Adaptation of reaching movements to visuomotor transformations is generally thought to involve implicit or procedural learning. However, there is evidence that explicit or cognitive processes can also play a role (Redding and Wallace, 2006 [31]). For example, the early phase of adaptation to a visuomotor rotation appears to involve spatial working memory(More)
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Discrete Element Modelling (DEM) studies relevant to inhaled drug delivery are reviewed. CFD is widely used in device design to determine airflow patterns and turbulence levels. CFD is also used to simulate particles and droplets, which are subjected to various forces, turbulence and wall interactions. These studies(More)
The use of pharmacogenetic testing in clinical practice is limited thus far. A potential barrier to the widespread implementation of pharmacogenetic testing is the lack of evidence on whether testing provides good value for money. The objective of this review was to provide a systematic and critical review of economic evaluations of pharmacogenetic testing.(More)
1 A shorter version of this paper appeared in the Proceedings of the Metrics’98 Symposium, IEEE CS Press Abstract This paper describes ongoing research directed at formulating a set of appropriate measures for assessing and ultimately predicting effort requirements for multimedia systems development. Whilst significant advances have been made in the(More)
There is plenty of evidence supporting the notion that the size of the carrier influences the aerosolisation performance of drug from a drug-carrier blend. Interestingly, that evidence is contradictory in places and the study of such mechanisms is fraught by the compounding variables associated with comparing crystalline powders (e.g. as size is varied so(More)
This study utilized a combination of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and standardized entrainment tubes to investigate the influence of turbulence on the break-up and aerosol performance of a model inhalation formulation. Agglomerates (642.8 μm mean diameter) containing 3.91 μm median diameter primary spherical mannitol particles were prepared by(More)
This study aimed to investigate the influence of grid structures on the break-up and aerosol performance of a model inhalation formulation through the use of standardised entrainment tubes in combination with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A series of entrainment tubes with grid structures of different aperture size and wire diameters were designed in(More)