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A generalized model for secondary frost heave is developed based on the one-dimensiona model of O'Neill and Miller. Secondary frost heave arises during freezing owing to cryostatic suction effect. that can increase the upward water permeation to facilitate ice-lens growth and increased heave. Nondi mensionalization and scaling are used to simplify the model(More)
PURPOSE To develop paclitaxel-delivering PLGA microspheres entrapped in a gel matrix with sustained drug release properties and implantability advantages for local glioma chemotherapy. METHODS Paclitaxel-loaded PLGA microspheres were fabricated using electrohydrodynamic atomization and entrapped by electrospray and gelation. The physicochemical(More)
This paper reports the preparation of poly(sodium acrylate) (PSA) cryogels decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for point-of-use (POU) water disinfection. The PSA/Ag cryogels combine the high porosity, excellent mechanical and water absorption properties of cryogels, and uniform dispersion of fine AgNPs on the cryogel pore surface for rapid(More)
A model for sorted patterned ground shows that some types arise from density-driven Rayleigh free convection that occurs during thawing of water-saturated recurrently frozen soils. The regularly spaced convection cells result in an uneven melting of the underlying ice front. Frost action causes stones to be upthrusted and to form in a pattern on the ground(More)
Access to safe drinking water is one of the first priorities following a disaster. However, providing drinking water to the affected population (AP) is challenging due to severe contamination and lack of access to infrastructure. An onsite treatment system for the AP is a more sustainable solution than transporting bottled water. Emergency water(More)
We report a study to explore new materials and a new concept for temperature driven quasi-continuous desalination using hydrogels as draw agents in forward osmosis (FO). This concept is enabled by the design and preparation of thermally responsive hydrogels having a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) structure. Thermally responsive semi-IPN hydrogels(More)
Low molecular weight dual responsive polymers, after purging with CO2, become polyelectrolytes with high osmolality, which can be used as draw solutes for seawater desalination. These polymers precipitate above their Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST) after removal of CO2 via purging with inert gas for ease of recovery and reuse.
This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered(More)
Experimental procedures Polymer synthesis: All the chemicals were purchased from Aldrich, Singapore. Atom transfer radical polymerization of DMAEMA was carried out in the solvent THF using 1,1,4,7,10,10-hexamethyltriethylenetetramine (HMTETA) as the ligand, CuBr as the catalyst and ethyl α-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB) as the initiator. The expected molecular(More)