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A generalized model for secondary frost heave is developed based on the one-dimensiona model of O'Neill and Miller. Secondary frost heave arises during freezing owing to cryostatic suction effect. that can increase the upward water permeation to facilitate ice-lens growth and increased heave. Nondi mensionalization and scaling are used to simplify the model(More)
A model for sorted patterned ground shows that some types arise from density-driven Rayleigh free convection that occurs during thawing of water-saturated recurrently frozen soils. The regularly spaced convection cells result in an uneven melting of the underlying ice front. Frost action causes stones to be upthrusted and to form in a pattern on the ground(More)
This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered(More)
Experimental procedures Polymer synthesis: All the chemicals were purchased from Aldrich, Singapore. Atom transfer radical polymerization of DMAEMA was carried out in the solvent THF using 1,1,4,7,10,10-hexamethyltriethylenetetramine (HMTETA) as the ligand, CuBr as the catalyst and ethyl α-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB) as the initiator. The expected molecular(More)
Experiments were conducted onboard a NASA KC-135 aircraft in order to assess the validity of two hypotheses proposed for the growth of macrovoid (MV) pores formed during the dry-casting of cellulose acetate (CA)/acetone/water casting solutions. The KC-135 aircraft provides the capability for greatly reducing the effective gravitational body forces that(More)
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