William B. Krantz

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A generalized model for secondary frost heave is developed based on the one-dimensiona model of O’Neill and Miller. Secondary frost heave arises during freezing owing to cryostatic suction effect. that can increase the upward water permeation to facilitate ice-lens growth and increased heave. Nondi mensionalization and scaling are used to simplify the model(More)
The genesis of some types of patterned ground, including hummocks, frost boils and sorted stone circles, has been attributed to differential frost heave (DFH). However, a theoretical model that adequately describes DFH has yet to be developed and validated. In this paper, we present a mathematical model for the initiation of DFH, and discuss how variations(More)
Access to safe drinking water is one of the first priorities following a disaster. However, providing drinking water to the affected population (AP) is challenging due to severe contamination and lack of access to infrastructure. An onsite treatment system for the AP is a more sustainable solution than transporting bottled water. Emergency water(More)
To develop paclitaxel-delivering PLGA microspheres entrapped in a gel matrix with sustained drug release properties and implantability advantages for local glioma chemotherapy. Paclitaxel-loaded PLGA microspheres were fabricated using electrohydrodynamic atomization and entrapped by electrospray and gelation. The physicochemical characterizations were(More)
This paper reports the preparation of poly(sodium acrylate) (PSA) cryogels decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) for point-of-use (POU) water disinfection. The PSA/Ag cryogels combine the high porosity, excellent mechanical and water absorption properties of cryogels, and uniform dispersion of fine AgNPs on the cryogel pore surface for rapid(More)
The authors have recently reported the fabrication of superabsorbent cryogels decorated with silver nanoparticles (PSA/AgNP cryogels) that demonstrate rapid water disinfection. This paper provides a systematic elucidation of the bactericidal mechanisms of AgNPs (silver nanoparticles), both generally and in the specific context of cryogels. Direct contact(More)
[1] Frost boils in the Arctic are a manifestation of patterned ground in the form of nonsorted circles. Active frost boils involve convection of water through the soil that can bring basic salts from depth to the surface. As such, active frost boils can mitigate acidification and thereby strongly influence the type of vegetation supported by Arctic soils.(More)
A model for sorted patterned ground shows that some types arise from density-driven Rayleigh free convection that occurs during thawing of water-saturated recurrently frozen soils. The regularly spaced convection cells result in an uneven melting of the underlying ice front. Frost action causes stones to be upthrusted and to form in a pattern on the ground(More)
Low molecular weight dual responsive polymers, after purging with CO2, become polyelectrolytes with high osmolality, which can be used as draw solutes for seawater desalination. These polymers precipitate above their Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST) after removal of CO2 via purging with inert gas for ease of recovery and reuse.
We report a study to explore new materials and a new concept for temperature driven quasi-continuous desalination using hydrogels as draw agents in forward osmosis (FO). This concept is enabled by the design and preparation of thermally responsive hydrogels having a semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) structure. Thermally responsive semi-IPN hydrogels(More)