William Aspray

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The article surveys the development of a scientific conceptualization of information during and in the decade following World War II. It examines the roots of information science in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century mathematical logic, physics, psychology, and electrical engineering, and then focuses on how Warren McCulloch, Walter Pitts, Claude(More)
T his document is the report of a workshop that convened a group of experts to discuss the recruitment and retention of women in Computer Science and Engineering (CSE) Graduate Programs. (1) Participants included long-time members of the CSE academic and research communities, social scientists engaged in relevant research, and directors of successful(More)
This paper investigates the context for the development of one of the earliest microprocessors, the Intel 4004. It considers the contributions Intel employees, most notably Marcian E. “Ted” Hoff, Jr., and Federico Faggin, made and contributions other people made to this development who are not generally known, most notably Tadashi Sasaki and Masatoshi(More)
The article surveys the international diffusion of computer technology between 1945 and 1955. It lists early computers and their sponsoring organizations, compares scientific and commercial styles of development, and describes the mechanisms for technology transfer across national boundaries. Suggestions are offered for further research on computing and(More)
The major underlying factors that shaped the computer industty as it emerged, beginning in the mid-I940s, are the focus of this paper. Unlike many accounts that primarily discuss technological developments, this paper examines the interaction of three equally important elements: technology, customers, and suppliers. The evolution of the computer industry is(More)
This article discusses the role of the US National Science Foundation in the provision of scientific computing facilities for colleges and universities in the period 1950 to 1973. In this period, the NSF played a major role in establishing computing facilities on American campuses for the purposes of scientific research and science education. By the end of(More)
William Aspray School of Informatics Indiana University Bloomington, IN 47408-3912 waspray@indiana.edu A. Frank Mayadas Alfred P. Sloan Foundation 630 Fifth Avenue, Ste. 2550 New York, NY 10111 mayadas@sloan.org Moshe Y. Vardi Dept. of Computer Science Rice University, P.O. Box 1892 Houston, TX 77251-1892 vardi@cs.rice.edu Stuart H. Zweben Dept. of Computer(More)
Interpreting the rich and striking blend of technical, intellectual, economic, social, and cultural information in advertisements of computer technology reveals how popular understanding and perceptions of the meaning of computers changed between 1950 and 1980. The study's findings contribute to the historical understanding of the social diffusion of the(More)