William Aquila

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Immune-mediated control of tumors may occur, in part, through lysis of malignant cells by CD8(+) T cells that recognize specific Ag-HLA class I complexes. However, tumor cell populations may escape T cell responses by immune editing, by preventing formation of those Ag-HLA complexes. It remains unclear whether the human immune system can respond to immune(More)
The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether flurothyl-induced status epilepticus causes progressive decline of brain high-energy phosphates and progressive increase in brain lactate in neonatal dogs who are paralyzed and oxygenated. In vivo 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements showed that the fall in brain pH occurred(More)
The long-term survival of some patients with metastatic melanoma may be attributable in part to cellular immune responses to melanoma antigens. However, little is known about the level of CTL reactivity in vivo that is required for immunological control of tumor progression. In the present report, T-cell responses were evaluated with lymphocytes obtained(More)
Excessive extracellular fluid concentrations of the amino acids glutamate and aspartate play an important role in the pathogenesis of neuronal cell damage during hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and seizure. The purpose of these investigations was to test the hypothesis that bacterial meningitis causes progressive increase in excessive extracellular fluid(More)
The intracerebral injection of the excitotoxins, glutamate (GLU), or its analogues, quisqualic acid (QA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), produces neuropathologic changes which resemble those induced by hypoxic-ischemic injury. We employed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the acute biochemical changes which follow injection of these(More)
Using in vitro microdialysis, we tested the hypothesis that anoxia-induced release of excitatory amino acids is greater in adult rat brain than in turtle brain. Ten minutes of anoxia produced significant elevation of glutamate (from 0.39 +/- 0.03 to 0.90 +/- 0.18 microM dialysate, means +/- SE, P < 0.05), aspartate (from 0.28 +/- 0.12 to 1.20 +/- 0.49(More)
During cerebral ischemia, hyperglycemia has a deleterious effect upon the adult brain but not the neonatal brain. This phenomenon may be related to the fact that hyperglycemia in adult animals subjected to cerebral ischemia raises the ischemic accumulation of lactate by as much as 10-fold. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hyperglycemia(More)
In vivo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was utilized to determine whether lactate is preferentially utilized as metabolic fuel by the neonatal dog brain. The data showed that during lactate influx, metabolism of lactate could account for most of the fuel needed for oxidative metabolism. The in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance measurements were(More)
It is uncertain whether a brief hypoxic exposure exerts long lasting effects on central nervous system amino acid neurotransmission. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a short period of hypoxia would affect release of excitatory and inhibitory amino acids during subsequent bicuculline-induced seizure. Utilizing in vivo microdialysis(More)
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