William Anthony Sparrow

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One defining characteristic of skilled motor performance is the ability to complete the task with minimum energy expenditure. This experiment was designed to examine practice effects on coordination and control, metabolic energy expenditure, and muscle activation. Participants rowed an ergometer at 100 W for ten 16-min sessions. Oxygen consumption and(More)
The study of human gait has expanded and diversified to the extent that it is now possible to identify a substantive literature concerning a variety of gait tasks, such as gait initiation [Halliday SE, Winter DA, Frank JS, Patla AE, Prince F. The initiation of gait in young, elderly, and Parkinson's disease subjects. Gait Posture 1998;8:8-14; Mickelborough(More)
Although lower limb strength becomes asymmetrical with age, past studies of aging effects on gait biomechanics have usually analyzed only one limb. This experiment measured how aging and treadmill surface influenced both dominant and nondominant step parameters in older (mean 74.0 y) and young participants (mean 21.9 y). Step-cycle parameters were obtained(More)
Attention demands of walking were determined in six male and six female young adults (mean 26.3 yr) and 12 gender-matched healthy, active older adults (mean 71.1 yr) using a dual task procedure with a reaction time (RT) secondary task. In three conditions an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus and both stimuli (auditory/visual) were presented. Relative to(More)
The authors investigated metabolic and attentional energy costs as participants (N = 6) practiced in-phase, antiphase, and 90 degrees -phase cycling (order counterbalanced) on independent bicycle ergometers, with resistance (40 W/ergometer) and frequency (40 rpm) held constant. Coordination stabilized and became more accurate for all 3 cycling modes, as(More)
Visual reaction time (RT) was measured in 10 older men (mean age, 71.1 years) and gender-matched controls (mean age, 26.3 years) when standing (single task) and when walking on a motor-driven treadmill (dual task). There were 90 quasi-randomly presented trials over 15 min in each condition. Longer mean and median RTs were observed in the dual task compared(More)
BACKGROUND Foot-ground clearance during the gait cycle swing phase is a critical locomotor adaptation to uneven terrain and non-optimal lower limb control has been linked to tripping and falling. The aim of this research was to determine ageing effects on bilateral foot-ground clearance during overground and treadmill walking. METHODS Ageing and walking(More)
Human gait is precisely and continuously adapted in order to negotiate obstacles safely and without excessive modulations to lower limb trajectories. To investigate obstacle clearance, unimpaired healthy adult subjects (6 male and 6 female) were videotaped stepping over an obstacle adjusted to IO%, 25%. and 40% of leg length. Lead foot clearance was(More)
"Efficiency, " or economy of movement with respect to energy expended in achieving the goal of the task, is implicit in many definitions of skilled performance. This study examined changes in mechanical efficiency and transport efficiency on a novel gross motor skill. The subjects were 5 physically fit adult males who were asked to perform 20 3-min trials(More)
Methods for determining the degree of similarity between relative motion plots are examined and computational methods outlined. Hypothetical examples are provided to simply illustrate the function of selected indices of pattern shape, size, and orientation. Methods of using a composite of these measures to assess asymmetry, abnormality, or refinements in(More)