William Anthony Sparrow

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Attention demands of walking were determined in six male and six female young adults (mean 26.3 yr) and 12 gender-matched healthy, active older adults (mean 71.1 yr) using a dual task procedure with a reaction time (RT) secondary task. In three conditions an auditory stimulus, a visual stimulus and both stimuli (auditory/visual) were presented. Relative to(More)
Methods for determining the degree of similarity between relative motion plots are examined and computational methods outlined. Hypothetical examples are provided to simply illustrate the function of selected indices of pattern shape, size, and orientation. Methods of using a composite of these measures to assess asymmetry, abnormality, or refinements in(More)
In 19 elite schoolboy rowers, the relationships between anthropometric characteristics, metabolic parameters, strength variables and 2000-m rowing ergometer performance time were analysed to test the hypothesis that a combination of these variables would predict performance better than either individual variables or one category of variables. Anthropometric(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the ability of subjects with stroke to successfully step over an obstacle during ambulation. SETTING A geriatric rehabilitation unit in a tertiary referral hospital. SUBJECTS Twenty-four inpatients with stroke (median time poststroke 27 days, interquartile range 21 to 44.5 days) able to walk 10 m unassisted without walking aids; also,(More)
One defining characteristic of skilled motor performance is the ability to complete the task with minimum energy expenditure. This experiment was designed to examine practice effects on coordination and control, metabolic energy expenditure, and muscle activation. Participants rowed an ergometer at 100 W for ten 16-min sessions. Oxygen consumption and(More)
The patterns of swing and support for the hands-and-feet or hands-and-knees gaits (creeping) of human adults and infants are compared based on data from a number of studies. Human infants show considerable variability in their creeping gait patterns, whereas adult patterns are less variable and fairly consistent after a few minutes of practice. Creeping on(More)
"Efficiency, " or economy of movement with respect to energy expended in achieving the goal of the task, is implicit in many definitions of skilled performance. This study examined changes in mechanical efficiency and transport efficiency on a novel gross motor skill. The subjects were 5 physically fit adult males who were asked to perform 20 3-min trials(More)
Difficulty negotiating obstacles may contribute to the high falls rate following stroke. This study examined the impact of stroke on balance during obstacle crossing. Centre of mass (COM) and centre of pressure (COP) were measured as 12 stroke subjects and 12 unimpaired subjects stepped over a 4 cm high obstacle at self-selected speed. Unimpaired subjects(More)
BACKGROUND Foot-ground clearance during the gait cycle swing phase is a critical locomotor adaptation to uneven terrain and non-optimal lower limb control has been linked to tripping and falling. The aim of this research was to determine ageing effects on bilateral foot-ground clearance during overground and treadmill walking. METHODS Ageing and walking(More)