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We find that the peripheral ER in Saccharomyces cerevisiae forms a dynamic network of interconnecting membrane tubules throughout the cell cycle, similar to the ER in higher eukaryotes. Maintenance of this network does not require microtubule or actin filaments, but its dynamic behavior is largely dependent on the actin cytoskeleton. We isolated three(More)
How is the characteristic shape of a membrane bound organelle achieved? We have used an in vitro system to address the mechanism by which the tubular network of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is generated and maintained. Based on the inhibitory effect of sulfhydryl reagents and antibodies, network formation in vitro requires the integral membrane protein(More)
The oxysterol-binding-protein (OSBP)-related proteins (ORPs) are conserved from yeast to humans, and are implicated in the regulation of sterol homeostasis and in signal transduction pathways. Here we report the structure of the full-length yeast ORP Osh4 (also known as Kes1) at 1.5-1.9 A resolution in complexes with ergosterol, cholesterol, and 7-, 20- and(More)
The tubular structure of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) appears to be generated by integral membrane proteins, the reticulons and a protein family consisting of DP1 in mammals and Yop1p in yeast. Here, individual members of these families were found to be sufficient to generate membrane tubules. When we purified yeast Yop1p and incorporated it into(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of tubules that are shaped by the reticulons and DP1/Yop1p, but how the tubules form an interconnected network is unknown. Here, we show that mammalian atlastins, which are dynamin-like, integral membrane GTPases, interact with the tubule-shaping proteins. The atlastins localize to the tubular ER and are required for(More)
Cells constantly adjust the sizes and shapes of their organelles according to need. In this study, we examine endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane expansion during the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We find that membrane expansion occurs through the generation of ER sheets, requires UPR signaling, and is driven by(More)
We recently identified a class of membrane proteins, the reticulons and DP1/Yop1p, which shape the tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast and mammalian cells. These proteins are highly enriched in the tubular portions of the ER and virtually excluded from other regions. To understand how they promote tubule formation, we characterized their behavior in(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) consists of the nuclear envelope and a peripheral network of tubules and membrane sheets. The tubules are shaped by the curvature-stabilizing proteins reticulons and DP1/Yop1p, but how the sheets are formed is unclear. Here, we identify several sheet-enriched membrane proteins in the mammalian ER, including proteins that(More)
Little is known about the mechanisms of intracellular sterol transport or how cells maintain the high sterol concentration of the plasma membrane (PM). Here we demonstrate that two inducible ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (Aus1p and Pdr11p) mediate nonvesicular movement of PM sterol to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.(More)
In Escherichia coli, two pathways use NADPH to reduce disulfide bonds that form in some cytoplasmic enzymes during catalysis: the thioredoxin system, which consists of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin, and the glutaredoxin system, composed of glutathione reductase, glutathione, and three glutaredoxins. These systems may also reduce disulfide bonds(More)