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Rare individuals have been multiply exposed to HIV-1 but remain uninfected. The CD4+ T-cells of two of these individuals, designated EU2 and EU3, are highly resistant in vitro to the entry of primary macrophagetropic virus but are readily infectable with transformed T-cell line adapted viruses. We report here on the genetic basis of this resistance. We(More)
A 32-nucleotide deletion (delta 32) within the beta-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene has been described in subjects who remain uninfected despite extensive exposure to HIV-1. This allele was found to be common in the Caucasian population with a frequency of 0.0808, but was not found in people of African or Asian ancestry. To determine its role in HIV-1(More)
The beta-chemokines MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES inhibit infection of CD4+ T cells by primary, non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) HIV-1 strains at the virus entry stage, and also block env-mediated cell-cell membrane fusion. CD4+ T cells from some HIV-1-exposed uninfected individuals cannot fuse with NSI HIV-1 strains and secrete high levels of(More)
Some individuals remain uninfected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) despite multiple high-risk sexual exposures. We studied a cohort of 25 subjects with histories of multiple high-risk sexual exposures to HIV-1 and found that their CD8+ lymphocytes had greater anti-HIV-1 activity than did CD8+ lymphocytes from nonexposed controls. Further(More)
Chemokine receptors serve as coreceptors for HIV entry into CD4+ cells. Their expression is thought to determine the tropism of viral strains for different cell types, and also to influence susceptibility to infection and rates of disease progression. Of the chemokine receptors, CCR5 is the most important for viral transmission, since CCR5 is the principal(More)
HIV-1 infection results in the progressive loss of CD4 T cells. In this study, we address how different pathogen-specific CD4 T cells are affected by HIV infection and the cellular parameters involved. We found striking differences in the depletion rates between CD4 T cells to two common opportunistic pathogens, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Mycobacterium(More)
To establish the relationships among T and B cell responses, active infection, and clinical manifestations in lymphatic filariasis, filarial-specific lymphocyte proliferation, IgG antibody isotypes, and IgE levels were determined in an exposed population: 31 asymptomatic amicrofilaremics, 43 microfilaremics, 12 symptomatic amicrofilaremics, and 52(More)
The increasing diversity of HIV-1 isolates makes virus quantitation challenging, especially when diverse isolates co-circulate in a geographical area. Measuring the HIV-1 DNA levels in cells has become a valuable practical tool for fundamental and clinical research. A quantitative HIV-1 DNA assay was developed based on TaqMan(®) technology. Primers that(More)
Studies on host factors, particularly the APOBEC3G gene, have previously found an association with AIDS progression in some populations and against some HIV-1 strains but not others. Our study had two main objectives: firstly, to screen a population from Burkina Faso for three variants of APOBEC3G previously described, and secondly to analyze the effect of(More)
BACKGROUND Chloroquine (CQ) has been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro as well as in vivo and has been proposed to alter the glycosylation pattern of the gp120 envelope. These activities indicate that the compound can be used not only as an effective HIV-1 therapeutic agent but also as a modulator of the gp120 envelope protein structure enabling(More)