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Rare individuals have been multiply exposed to HIV-1 but remain uninfected. The CD4+ T-cells of two of these individuals, designated EU2 and EU3, are highly resistant in vitro to the entry of primary macrophagetropic virus but are readily infectable with transformed T-cell line adapted viruses. We report here on the genetic basis of this resistance. We(More)
Chemokine receptors serve as coreceptors for HIV entry into CD4+ cells. Their expression is thought to determine the tropism of viral strains for different cell types, and also to influence susceptibility to infection and rates of disease progression. Of the chemokine receptors, CCR5 is the most important for viral transmission, since CCR5 is the principal(More)
Studies on host factors, particularly the APOBEC3G gene, have previously found an association with AIDS progression in some populations and against some HIV-1 strains but not others. Our study had two main objectives: firstly, to screen a population from Burkina Faso for three variants of APOBEC3G previously described, and secondly to analyze the effect of(More)
HIV-1 infection results in the progressive loss of CD4 T cells. In this study, we address how different pathogen-specific CD4 T cells are affected by HIV infection and the cellular parameters involved. We found striking differences in the depletion rates between CD4 T cells to two common opportunistic pathogens, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Mycobacterium(More)
HIV-1 actively replicates in dendritic cell (DC)-T cell cocultures, but it has been difficult to demonstrate substantial infection of purified mature DCs. We now find that HIV-1 begins reverse transcription much more efficiently in DCs than T cells, even though T cells have higher levels of CD4 and gp120 binding. DCs isolated from skin or from blood(More)
DC-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN), which is expressed on DCs, can interact with a variety of pathogens such as HIV-1, hepatitis C, Ebola, cytomegalovirus, Dengue virus, Mycobacterium, Leishmania, and Candida albicans. We demonstrate that human milk can inhibit the DC-SIGN-mediated transfer of HIV-1 to CD4+ T lymphocytes as well as viral(More)
BACKGROUND The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120, which mediates viral attachment to target cells, consists for approximately 50% of sugar, but the role of the individual sugar chains in various aspects of gp120 folding and function is poorly understood. Here we studied the role of the carbohydrate at position 386. We identified a virus variant that had(More)
BACKGROUND Statins have previously been shown to reduce the in vitro infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through modulation of Rho GTPase activity and lipid raft formation at the cell surface, as well as by disrupting LFA-1 incorporation into viral particles. PRINCIPLE FINDINGS Here we demonstrate that treatment of an enriched CD4(+)(More)
BACKGROUND Chloroquine (CQ) has been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro as well as in vivo and has been proposed to alter the glycosylation pattern of the gp120 envelope. These activities indicate that the compound can be used not only as an effective HIV-1 therapeutic agent but also as a modulator of the gp120 envelope protein structure enabling(More)
OBJECTIVE Dendritic cells bind an array of antigens and DC-SIGN has been postulated to act as a receptor for mucosal pathogen transmission. Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) from human milk potently binds DC-SIGN and blocks DC-SIGN mediated trans-infection of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes with HIV-1. Objective was to study variation in DC-SIGN binding properties(More)