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A 32-nucleotide deletion (delta 32) within the beta-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) gene has been described in subjects who remain uninfected despite extensive exposure to HIV-1. This allele was found to be common in the Caucasian population with a frequency of 0.0808, but was not found in people of African or Asian ancestry. To determine its role in HIV-1(More)
Rare individuals have been multiply exposed to HIV-1 but remain uninfected. The CD4+ T-cells of two of these individuals, designated EU2 and EU3, are highly resistant in vitro to the entry of primary macrophagetropic virus but are readily infectable with transformed T-cell line adapted viruses. We report here on the genetic basis of this resistance. We(More)
The beta-chemokines MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES inhibit infection of CD4+ T cells by primary, non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) HIV-1 strains at the virus entry stage, and also block env-mediated cell-cell membrane fusion. CD4+ T cells from some HIV-1-exposed uninfected individuals cannot fuse with NSI HIV-1 strains and secrete high levels of(More)
Some individuals remain uninfected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) despite multiple high-risk sexual exposures. We studied a cohort of 25 subjects with histories of multiple high-risk sexual exposures to HIV-1 and found that their CD8+ lymphocytes had greater anti-HIV-1 activity than did CD8+ lymphocytes from nonexposed controls. Further(More)
Chemokine receptors serve as coreceptors for HIV entry into CD4+ cells. Their expression is thought to determine the tropism of viral strains for different cell types, and also to influence susceptibility to infection and rates of disease progression. Of the chemokine receptors, CCR5 is the most important for viral transmission, since CCR5 is the principal(More)
HIV-1 infection results in the progressive loss of CD4 T cells. In this study, we address how different pathogen-specific CD4 T cells are affected by HIV infection and the cellular parameters involved. We found striking differences in the depletion rates between CD4 T cells to two common opportunistic pathogens, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Mycobacterium(More)
To establish the relationships among T and B cell responses, active infection, and clinical manifestations in lymphatic filariasis, filarial-specific lymphocyte proliferation, IgG antibody isotypes, and IgE levels were determined in an exposed population: 31 asymptomatic amicrofilaremics, 43 microfilaremics, 12 symptomatic amicrofilaremics, and 52(More)
The cuticle of filarial nematode parasites contains distinct and separable sets of soluble and structural proteins. Surface-labeling techniques have previously identified a soluble protein complex in adult stage Brugia which ranges in molecular weight from 15 to 200 kDa. Using an antiserum directed to the 15-kDa basal subunit of this complex, we show here(More)
Control of viremia in natural human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in humans is associated with a virus-specific T-cell response. However, still much is unknown with regard to the extent of CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses required to successfully control HIV-1 infection and to what extent CTL epitope escape can account for(More)
The increasing diversity of HIV-1 isolates makes virus quantitation challenging, especially when diverse isolates co-circulate in a geographical area. Measuring the HIV-1 DNA levels in cells has become a valuable practical tool for fundamental and clinical research. A quantitative HIV-1 DNA assay was developed based on TaqMan(®) technology. Primers that(More)