William A. P. Smith

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In this paper, we show how a statistical model of facial shape can be embedded within a shape-from-shading algorithm. We describe how facial shape can be captured using a statistical model of variations in surface normal direction. To construct this model, we make use of the azimuthal equidistant projection to map the distribution of surface normals from(More)
In this paper we revisit the process of constructing a high resolution 3D morphable model of face shape variation. We demonstrate how the statistical tools of thin-plate splines and Procrustes analysis can be used to construct a morphable model that is both more efficient and generalises to novel face surfaces more accurately than previous models. We also(More)
In this paper, we present a robust and efficient method to statistically recover the full 3D shape and texture of faces from single 2D images. We separate shape and texture recovery into two linear problems. For shape recovery, we learn empirically the generalization error of a 3D morphable model [1] using out-of-sample data. We use this to predict the 2D(More)
We focus on the problem of developing a coupled statistical model that can be used to recover facial shape from brightness images of faces. We study three alternative representations for facial shape. These are the surface height function, the surface gradient, and a Fourier basis representation. We jointly capture variations in intensity and the surface(More)
The aim in this paper is to use principal geodesic analysis to model the statistical variations for sets of facial needle maps. We commence by showing how to represent the distribution of surface normals using the exponential map. Shape deformations are described using principal geodesic analysis on the exponential map. Using ideas from robust statistics we(More)
We present a shape-from-shading algorithm for Lambertian surfaces of uniform but unknown albedo, illuminated by unknown, arbitrarily complex environment lighting. Our approach is based on a first order spherical harmonic approximation to the reflectance map. This is estimated from the image using surface normals interpolated from boundary points. The(More)
We present a method for estimating surface height directly from a single polarisation image simply by solving a large, sparse system of linear equations. To do so, we show how to express polarisation constraints as equations that are linear in the unknown depth. The ambiguity in the surface normal azimuth angle is resolved globally when the optimal surface(More)