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Dual-task studies assessed the effects of cellular-phone conversations on performance of a simulated driving task. Performance was not disrupted by listening to radio broadcasts or listening to a book on tape. Nor was it disrupted by a continuous shadowing task using a handheld phone, ruling out, in this case, dual-task interpretations associated with(More)
This research examined the effects of hands-free cell phone conversations on simulated driving. The authors found that these conversations impaired driver's reactions to vehicles braking in front of them. The authors assessed whether this impairment could be attributed to a withdrawal of attention from the visual scene, yielding a form of inattention(More)
The mind appears to be biased simultaneously toward both expected and unexpected inputs. For example, familiar scenes are usually perceived more readily than novel scenes, indicating the former bias, but a single novel object sometimes pops out from a familiar field, indicating the latter bias. A diverse literature and a computational model converge on the(More)
Two experiments investigated the possibility that perceptual memory for words is dependent on level of awareness of those words. In Experiment 1, subjects attempted to report briefly exposed words in a study phase and then identify words that faded into view in a test phase. Old words appeared in both the study and test phases, whereas new words appeared(More)
Following a shallow (count vowels) or deep (read) study task, old and new words were tested for both fluency of perception and recognition memory. Subjects first identified a test word as it came gradually into view and then judged it as old or new. Old words were identified faster than new words, indicating implicit, perceptual memory for old words.(More)
Observers with four different levels of radiological experience performed a recognition memory task on slides of faces and chest X-ray films. Half of the X-ray films revealed clinically significant abnormalities and half did not. Recognition memory for faces was uniformly high across all levels of radiological experience. Memory for abnormal X-ray films(More)
In several experiments, observers were given glimpses of 4-word arrays. Accuracy of word localization was tested after each array. Some words, called familiar, appeared many times across the series of arrays; others, called novel, appeared only once. The ratio of novel to familiar words in an array ranged from 0:4 to 4:0. When familiar and novel words were(More)
A distinction is drawn between intraperceptual and extraperceptual theories of attention. Only the former class allows for the selective modulation of amount of nonconscious, perceptual processing of concurrent stimuli. The adequacy of intraperceptual theory has been questioned on the basis of diverse empirical findings. This literature is critically(More)
Subjects performed a visual target-detection task in eight experiments. We examined the effects of word relevancy (word in relevant or irrelevant location) and display load (1-4 words) on physical, semantic, and controlled processing of nontargets. Interwoven with the detection task was a test-word identification task that was used to measure priming(More)