William A . Carlezon

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Drugs of abuse regulate the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in striatal regions, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). To explore how regulation of CREB in the NAc affects behavior, we used herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors to elevate CREB expression in this region or to overexpress a dominant-negative mutant CREB (mCREB)(More)
Circadian rhythms and the genes that make up the molecular clock have long been implicated in bipolar disorder. Genetic evidence in bipolar patients suggests that the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, CLOCK, may be particularly important. However, the exact role of this gene in the development of this disorder remains unclear. Here we(More)
At least two temporally and mechanistically distinct forms of memory are conserved across many species: short-term memory that persists minutes to hours after training and long-term memory (LTM) that persists days or longer. In general, repeated training trials presented with intervening rest intervals (spaced training) is more effective than massed(More)
Acute exposure to cocaine transiently induces several Fos family transcription factors in the nucleus accumbens, a region of the brain that is important for addiction. In contrast, chronic exposure to cocaine does not induce these proteins, but instead causes the persistent expression of highly stable isoforms of deltaFosB. deltaFosB is also induced in the(More)
We showed previously that cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats regulates immobility in the forced swim test (FST), an assay used to study depression. Because CREB regulates expression of dynorphin (which acts at kappa-opioid receptors) in NAc neurons, these findings raised the possibility that(More)
We report that GTP cyclohydrolase (GCH1), the rate-limiting enzyme for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, is a key modulator of peripheral neuropathic and inflammatory pain. BH4 is an essential cofactor for catecholamine, serotonin and nitric oxide production. After axonal injury, concentrations of BH4 rose in primary sensory neurons, owing to(More)
Auditory information critical for fear conditioning, a model of emotional learning, is conveyed to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala via two routes: directly from the medial geniculate nucleus and indirectly from the auditory cortex. Here we show in the cortico-amygdala pathway that learned fear occludes electrically induced long-term potentiation (LTP).(More)
Repeated administration of morphine sensitizes animals to the stimulant and rewarding properties of the drug. It also selectively increases expression of GluR1 (an AMPA glutamate receptor subunit) in the ventral tegmental area, a midbrain region implicated in morphine action. By viral-mediated gene transfer, a causal relation is shown between these(More)
Evidence in laboratory animals indicates that exposure to stimulants produces sensitization to their rewarding effects, a process that in humans would be expected to increase the risk of substance abuse. However, therapeutic administration of stimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reportedly(More)