William A. Beard

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The mammalian family X DNA polymerases (DNA polymerases beta, lambda, mu, and TdT) contribute to base excision repair and double-strand break repair by virtue of their ability to fill short gaps in DNA. Structural information now exists for all four of these enzymes, making this the first mammalian polymerase family whose structural portrait is complete.(More)
Base excision repair (BER) is one of the cellular defense mechanisms repairing damage to nucleoside 5'-monophosphate residues in genomic DNA. This repair pathway is initiated by spontaneous or enzymatic N-glycosidic bond cleavage creating an abasic or apurinic-apyrimidinic (AP) site in double-stranded DNA. Class II AP endonuclease, deoxyribonucleotide(More)
DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) and flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) are key players in pol beta-mediated long-patch base excision repair (LP-BER). It was proposed that this type of LP-BER is accomplished through FEN1 removal of a 2- to 11-nucleotide flap created by pol beta strand displacement DNA synthesis. To understand how these enzymes might cooperate during(More)
DNA polymerase beta (beta-pol) cleaves the sugar-phosphate bond 3' to an intact apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site (i.e. AP lyase activity). The same bond is cleaved even if the AP site has been previously 5'-incised by AP endonuclease, resulting in a 5' 2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate (i.e. dRP lyase activity). We characterized these lyase reactions by steady-state(More)
Structures of DNA polymerase (pol) beta bound to single-nucleotide gapped DNA had revealed that the lyase and pol domains form a "doughnut-shaped" structure altering the dNTP binding pocket in a fashion that is not observed when bound to non-gapped DNA. We have investigated dNTP binding to pol beta-DNA complexes employing steady-state and pre-steady-state(More)
Mammalian DNA polymerase (pol) lambda is a member of the X-family of DNA polymerases and has striking enzymatic and structural similarities to mammalian DNA pol beta. Because pol beta provides two important enzymatic activities for base excision repair (BER), we examined whether pol lambda might also contribute to BER. We used extracts from mouse embryonic(More)
DNA polymerase (pol) β is a model polymerase involved in gap-filling DNA synthesis utilizing two metals to facilitate nucleotidyl transfer. Previous structural studies have trapped catalytic intermediates by utilizing substrate analogs (dideoxy-terminated primer or nonhydrolysable incoming nucleotide). To identify additional intermediates during catalysis,(More)
The current model for base excision repair (BER) involves two general sub-pathways termed single-nucleotide BER and long patch BER that are distinguished by their repair patch sizes and the enzymes/co-factors involved. Both sub-pathways involve a series of sequential steps from initiation to completion of repair. The BER sub-pathways are designed to(More)
The individual steps in single-nucleotide base excision repair (SN-BER) are coordinated to enable efficient repair without accumulation of cytotoxic DNA intermediates. The DNA transactions and various proteins involved in SN-BER of abasic sites are well known in mammalian systems. Yet, despite a wealth of information on SN-BER, the mechanism of step-by-step(More)
The amino-terminal 8-kDa domain of DNA polymerase beta functions in binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), recognition of a 5'-phosphate in gapped DNA structures, and as a 5'-deoxyribose phosphate (dRP) lyase. NMR and x-ray crystal structures of this domain have suggested several residues that may interact with ssDNA or play a role in the dRP lyase reaction.(More)