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Terpenoids, the largest class of plant secondary metabolites, play essential roles in both plant and human life. In higher plants, the five-carbon building blocks of all terpenoids, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate, are derived from two independent pathways localized in different cellular compartments. The methylerythritol(More)
The ability of plants to withstand herbivores relies on direct and indirect chemical defense. By using toxic phytochemicals, plants can deter and/or poison herbivores, while by releasing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere plants can attract predators of the herbivores. The activation of specific responses requires recognition and(More)
In higher plants, biotic stress (e.g., herbivore or pathogen attack) as well as abiotic stress (in particular heavy metals) often induce the synthesis and accumulation of the same defense-related secondary metabolites. This well-known finding still awaits an explanation regarding the common features of both stress types. In this study, a mechanism is(More)
In response to herbivore damage, several plant species emit volatiles that attract natural predators of the attacking herbivores. Using spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) and predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis), it has been shown that not only the attacked plant but also neighbouring plants are affected, becoming more attractive to predatory mites and(More)
Members and prospective members of the family Phycodnaviridae are large icosahedral, dsDNA (180 to 560 kb) viruses that infect eukaryotic algae. The genomes of two phycodnaviruses have been sequenced: the 331 kb genome of Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) and more recently, the 336 kb genome of the Ectocarpus siliculosus virus (EsV-1). EsV-1 has(More)
Plants are able to respond to herbivore damage with de novo biosynthesis of an herbivore-characteristic blend of volatiles. The signal transduction initiating volatile biosynthesis may involve the activation of the octadecanoid pathway, as exemplified by the transient increase of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) in leaves of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) after(More)
Plants emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that play important roles in their interaction with the environment and have a major impact on atmospheric chemistry. The development of static and dynamic techniques for headspace collection of volatiles in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has significantly improved our(More)
The treatment of healthy, undamaged plants of the Lima bean Phaseolus lunatus with solutions of a beta-glucosidase from bitter almonds (at 5 U.ml-1) through the petiole results in an enhanced emission of volatiles to the environment. The compounds are identical with those emitted in response to infestation with the red spotted spider mite Tetranychus(More)
Plant species in at least 66 families produce extrafloral nectar (EFN) on their leaves or shoots and therewith attract predators and parasitoids, such as ants and wasps, which in turn defend them against herbivores. We investigated whether EFN secretion is induced by herbivory and/or artificial damage, and thus can be regarded as an induced defensive(More)
Indirect responses are defensive strategies by which plants attract natural enemies of their herbivores that act as plant defending agents. Such defences can be either constitutively expressed or induced by the combined action of mechanical damage and low- or high-molecular-weight elicitors from the attacking herbivore. Here, we focus on two induced(More)