Willhelm Boland

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In response to herbivore damage, several plant species emit volatiles that attract natural predators of the attacking herbivores. Using spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) and predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis), it has been shown that not only the attacked plant but also neighbouring plants are affected, becoming more attractive to predatory mites and(More)
Indirect responses are defensive strategies by which plants attract natural enemies of their herbivores that act as plant defending agents. Such defences can be either constitutively expressed or induced by the combined action of mechanical damage and low- or high-molecular-weight elicitors from the attacking herbivore. Here, we focus on two induced(More)
Terpenoids, the largest class of plant secondary metabolites, play essential roles in both plant and human life. In higher plants, the five-carbon building blocks of all terpenoids, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate, are derived from two independent pathways localized in different cellular compartments. The methylerythritol(More)
Plant species in at least 66 families produce extrafloral nectar (EFN) on their leaves or shoots and therewith attract predators and parasitoids, such as ants and wasps, which in turn defend them against herbivores. We investigated whether EFN secretion is induced by herbivory and/or artificial damage, and thus can be regarded as an induced defensive(More)
In higher plants, biotic stress (e.g., herbivore or pathogen attack) as well as abiotic stress (in particular heavy metals) often induce the synthesis and accumulation of the same defense-related secondary metabolites. This well-known finding still awaits an explanation regarding the common features of both stress types. In this study, a mechanism is(More)
Plants emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that play important roles in their interaction with the environment and have a major impact on atmospheric chemistry. The development of static and dynamic techniques for headspace collection of volatiles in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has significantly improved our(More)
Plants are able to respond to herbivore damage with de novo biosynthesis of an herbivore-characteristic blend of volatiles. The signal transduction initiating volatile biosynthesis may involve the activation of the octadecanoid pathway, as exemplified by the transient increase of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) in leaves of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) after(More)
In response to herbivore (Spodoptera littoralis) attack, lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves produced hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in concentrations that were higher when compared to mechanically damaged (MD) leaves. Cellular and subcellular localization analyses revealed that H(2)O(2) was mainly localized in MD and herbivore-wounded (HW) zones and spread(More)
Herbivore feeding elicits defense responses in infested plants, including the emission of volatile organic compounds that can serve as indirect defense signals. Until now, the contribution of plant tissue wounding during the feeding process in the elicitation of defense responses has not been clear. For example, in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), the(More)
The Ectocarpus siliculosus Virus-1, EsV-1, is the type-species of a genus of Phycodnaviridae, the phaeoviruses, infecting marine filamentous brown algae. The EsV-1 genome of 335,593 bp contains tandem and dispersed repetitive elements in addition to a large number of open reading frames of which 231 are currently counted as genes. Many genes can be assigned(More)