Willemien A Meijer

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Older or lower educated individuals may be less able than younger or higher educated individuals to inhibit irrelevant speech when learning new visual information. In Experiment 1, we investigated the effects of age (four groups), educational attainment (low or high), and verbal noise (spoken words or silence) on word-learning performance in 230 individuals(More)
Disproportionate costs of switching focal attention within working memory have been put forward as an explanation for age-related performance impairment on the n-back task. The lag (n) in the n-back task is confounded by memory load, however. In the current study, it was attempted to tackle this issue by introducing a two-digit 1-back condition. This(More)
In this experimental study, effects of age and education on switching focal attention in working memory were investigated among 44 young (20-30 years) and 40 middle-aged individuals (50-60 years). To this end, a numeric n-back task comprising two lag conditions (1- and 2-back) was administered within groups. The results revealed a comparable increase of(More)
In general, no disproportionate detrimental effects of irrelevant background speech on cognition are found in aging individuals, although this is predicted by the inhibitory view of aging. This may be due to the nature of the primary task (most studies involve a verbal learning task) or the cognitive level at which irrelevant speech interferes with this(More)
The present study investigated the effects of a narrow range of interstimulus intervals (ISI; 1, 2, or 3 s) on word-learning performance in relation to age and education. Individuals (N = 338) from four age groups (24 to 76 years) with low or high educational attainment were randomly assigned to one of three ISI conditions. Older age, lower education, and(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS The aim of the present study was to examine whether deeper processing of words during encoding in middle-aged adults leads to a smaller increase in word-learning performance and a smaller decrease in retrieval effort than in young adults. It was also assessed whether high education attenuates age-related differences in performance. (More)
In this cross-sectional study, the mediating role of inhibition relative to speed in age-related working memory decline on different tasks was investigated. It was hypothesized that the role of inhibition is marginal or absent in a relatively "passive" or simple working memory task, but present in a relatively "active" or complex task in which the(More)
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