Willem Schaftenaar

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This investigation aimed to establish noninvasive methods for endocrine monitoring of estrous cycles and pregnancy in the Indian rhinoceros. Fecal samples were collected 1-3 times per week from nonpregnant and pregnant captive females (n = 7). Enzyme immunoassays for fecal progesterone, androgen, and estrogen metabolites, respectively, were tested for their(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infections have recently caused unprecedented morbidity and mortality in a wide range of avian species. European Commission directive 2005/744/EC allowed vaccination in zoos under strict conditions, while reducing confinement measures. Vaccination with a commercial H5N2 vaccine with vaccine doses adapted(More)
In 2003 an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N7) struck poultry in The Netherlands. A European Commission directive made vaccination of valuable species in zoo collections possible under strict conditions. We determined pre- and post-vaccination antibody titres in 211 birds by haemagglutination inhibition test as a measure of vaccine(More)
Since 1995, 4 suspected cases of Endotheliotropic Elephant Herpes Virus (EEHV) infection, i.e. based on clinical presentation, have occurred in Asia without resulting in epidemic outbreaks as expected. In order to confirm the presence of EEHV on the continent of Asia, viral DNA particles from liver samples of a wild-caught 3-year-old elephant found dead at(More)
Several different strains of elephant endotheliotropic herpes virus-1 (EEHV-1) have been identified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques in both African and Asian elephants. EEHV-1 has been identified in both cutaneous lesions in healthy African elephants and fatal cases of hemorrhagic syndrome in Asian elephants. However, until now, no EEHV-1(More)
Obstetrics, one of the oldest fields in veterinary medicine, is well described and practiced in domestic and exotic animals. However, when providing care during elephant birth or dystocia, veterinary intervention options differ greatly from any domestic species, and are far more limited due to the dimensions and specific anatomy of the elephant reproductive(More)
Newly discovered, lethal elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) have been identified in both Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Carried by otherwise healthy African elephants they can be fatal mainly for young Asian elephants. Since zoos often harbour both elephant species, we conducted a survey on the presence of(More)
To investigate the possible role of selected pathogens in the decline of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) populations and the potential for these pathogens to affect mink survival, a serologic survey was conducted using serum samples collected from March 1996 to March 2003 in eight departments of south-western France. In total, 481 free-ranging(More)
The list of threatened and endangered species is growing rapidly, due to various anthropogenic causes. Many endangered species are present in captivity and actively managed in breeding programs in which often little is known about the founder individuals. Recent developments in genetic research techniques have made it possible to sequence and study whole(More)
BACKGROUND Elephants are classified as critically endangered animals by the International Union for Conservation of Species (IUCN). Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) poses a large threat to breeding programs of captive Asian elephants by causing fatal haemorrhagic disease. EEHV infection is detected by PCR in samples from both clinically ill and(More)