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The tutor role in problem-based learning (PBL) has attracted the interest of many researchers and has led to an abundance of studies. This article reports on major trends in studies investigating the tutor during the past 10 years. Three major trends were observed by the authors while analysing the studies conducted: studies on the differential influence of(More)
World-wide, universities in health sciences have transformed their curriculum to include collaborative learning and facilitate the students' learning process. Interaction has been acknowledged to be the synergistic element in this learning context. However, students spend the majority of their time outside their classroom and interaction does not stop(More)
Evidence that medical error can cause harm to patients has raised the attention of the health care community towards patient safety and influenced how and what medical students learn about it. Patient safety is best taught when students are participating in clinical practice where they actually encounter patients at risk. This type of learning is referred(More)
BACKGROUND Incident reporting systems (IRS) are used to identify medical errors in order to learn from mistakes and improve patient safety in hospitals. However, IRS contain only a small fraction of occurring incidents. A more comprehensive overview of medical error in hospitals may be obtained by combining information from multiple sources. The WHO has(More)
Teachers' reflections are often narrowly focused on technical questions ('how to') and less on the underlying moral, political and emotional aspects of their functioning. However, for a better understanding of teaching practice it is important to uncover beliefs and values that usually remain implicit. Meeting with others is considered crucial for enhancing(More)
CONTEXT Problem-based learning (PBL) is widely used in higher education. There is evidence available that students and faculty are highly satisfied with PBL. Nevertheless, in educational practice problems are often encountered, such as tutors who are too directive, problems that are too well-structured, and dysfunctional tutorial groups. PURPOSE The aim(More)
BACKGROUND Resuscitation outcomes are related to care delivered by 'first responders', even for hospitalized patients. Third year medical students (clinical clerks) at McGill University are trained and certified in Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) for critically ill adult patients, but receive only minimal instruction, in the form of a brief(More)
An instrument has been developed to provide tutors with feedback about their performance in problem-based tutorial groups. This questionnaire consists of 33 statements reflecting the behaviour of the tutor in the tutorial group when students analyse the case and generate learning issues and the behaviour of the tutor when students report back to the(More)
OBJECTIVES Research on tutoring in problem-based learning has not focused so far on the variation in tutoring and how this variation can be interpreted by conceptions about effective tutoring. DESIGN This study focuses on the profiles of tutors generated by means of an instrument, the so-called Tutor Intervention Profile (TIP), and tries to determine(More)
The concept of professionalism has undergone major changes over the millennia in general and the last century specifically. This article, the first in a series of articles in this Journal on professionalism, attempts to provide the reader with a historical overview of the evolution of the concept of professionalism over time. As a result of these changes,(More)