Willem S. de Grave

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The tutor role in problem-based learning (PBL) has attracted the interest of many researchers and has led to an abundance of studies. This article reports on major trends in studies investigating the tutor during the past 10 years. Three major trends were observed by the authors while analysing the studies conducted: studies on the differential influence of(More)
World-wide, universities in health sciences have transformed their curriculum to include collaborative learning and facilitate the students' learning process. Interaction has been acknowledged to be the synergistic element in this learning context. However, students spend the majority of their time outside their classroom and interaction does not stop(More)
BACKGROUND The quality of teachers in higher education is subject of increasing attention, as exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. AIM Because medical education takes a special position in higher education the Council of Deans of Medical Schools in The Netherlands(More)
Evidence that medical error can cause harm to patients has raised the attention of the health care community towards patient safety and influenced how and what medical students learn about it. Patient safety is best taught when students are participating in clinical practice where they actually encounter patients at risk. This type of learning is referred(More)
OBJECTIVES Research on tutoring in problem-based learning has not focused so far on the variation in tutoring and how this variation can be interpreted by conceptions about effective tutoring. DESIGN This study focuses on the profiles of tutors generated by means of an instrument, the so-called Tutor Intervention Profile (TIP), and tries to determine(More)
BACKGROUND Incident reporting systems (IRS) are used to identify medical errors in order to learn from mistakes and improve patient safety in hospitals. However, IRS contain only a small fraction of occurring incidents. A more comprehensive overview of medical error in hospitals may be obtained by combining information from multiple sources. The WHO has(More)
CONTEXT We addressed the assessment of professional behaviour in tutorial groups by investigating students' perceptions of the frequency and impact of critical incidents that impede this assessment and 5 factors underlying these critical incidents. METHODS A questionnaire asking students to rate the frequency and impact of 40 critical incidents relating(More)
To explore student perceptions of factors contributing to the effectiveness of discussions in the reporting phase of the problem-based learning (PBL) process, where students report and synthesise the results of self-study. Forty-eight Year 1 and 2 medical students participated in 6 focus group interviews about the characteristics of effective group(More)
Teachers' reflections are often narrowly focused on technical questions ('how to') and less on the underlying moral, political and emotional aspects of their functioning. However, for a better understanding of teaching practice it is important to uncover beliefs and values that usually remain implicit. Meeting with others is considered crucial for enhancing(More)
This paper is the fourth article in a series on Professionalism and provides an overview of current methods used for teaching and learning about professionalism. The questions "whether" and "how" professionalism can be placed in the formal medical school curricula are addressed, and the informal learning related to professionalism reviewed.