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Cross-species reciprocal chromosome painting was used to delineate homologous chromosomal segments between domestic dog, red fox, and human. Whole sets of chromosome-specific painting probes for the red fox and dog were made by PCR amplification of flow-sorted chromosomes from established cell cultures. Based on their hybridization patterns, a complete(More)
In therian mammals (placentals and marsupials), sex is determined by an XX female: XY male system, in which a gene (SRY) on the Y affects male determination. There is no equivalent in other amniotes, although some taxa (notably birds and snakes) have differentiated sex chromosomes. Birds have a ZW female: ZZ male system with no homology with mammal sex(More)
The karyotypes of marsupial species are characterized by their relatively low number of chromosomes, and their conservation. Most species have diploid numbers lying between the two modes, 2n = 14 and 2n = 22, but the karyotype of Aepyprymnus rufescens is exceptional in containing 2n = 32 chromosomes. Many differences in diploid number between marsupial(More)
The abundant chromosome abnormalities in most carcinomas are probably a reflection of genomic instability present in the tumor, so the pattern and variability of chromosome abnormalities will reflect the mechanism of instability combined with the effects of selection. Chromosome rearrangement was investigated in 17 colorectal carcinoma-derived cell lines.(More)
Two centuries after the duck-billed platypus was discovered, monotreme chromosome systems remain deeply puzzling. Karyotypes of males, or of both sexes, were claimed to contain several unpaired chromosomes (including the X chromosome) that form a multi-chromosomal chain at meiosis. Such meiotic chains exist in plants and insects but are rare in vertebrates.(More)
X chromosome dosage compensation in female eutherian mammals is regulated by the noncoding Xist RNA and is associated with the differential acquisition of active and repressive histone modifications, resulting in repression of most genes on one of the two X chromosome homologs. Marsupial mammals exhibit dosage compensation; however, they lack Xist, and the(More)
Sex-determining systems have evolved independently in vertebrates. Placental mammals and marsupials have an XY system, birds have a ZW system. Reptiles and amphibians have different systems, including temperature-dependent sex determination, and XY and ZW systems that differ in origin from birds and placental mammals. Monotremes diverged early in mammalian(More)
Marsupial karyotypes have shown extensive conservation even between distantly related groups with a high diversity of life forms and reproductive biology. Banding analysis has been the main test for assessing their homologies and chromosome rearrangements. More recently, cross-species reciprocal chromosome painting has been developed and applied to several(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that, within a lineage, particular genomic regions are subject to instability that can lead to specific types of chromosome rearrangements important in species incompatibility. Within family Macropodidae (kangaroos, wallabies, bettongs, and potoroos), which exhibit recent and extensive karyotypic evolution, rearrangements(More)
We present the genome sequence of the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, which is a member of the kangaroo family and the first representative of the iconic hopping mammals that symbolize Australia to be sequenced. The tammar has many unusual biological characteristics, including the longest period of embryonic diapause of any mammal, extremely synchronized(More)