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Understanding of the regeneration of feathers, despite a 140 year tradition of study, has remained substantially incomplete. Moreover, accumulated errors and mis-statements in the literature have confounded the intrinsic difficulties in describing feather regeneration. Lack of allusion to Rudall's (Rudall [1947] Biochem Biophys Acta 1:549-562) seminal X-ray(More)
Modern birds have markedly foreshortened tails and their body mass is centred anteriorly, near the wings. To provide stability during powered flight, the avian centre of mass is far from the pelvis, which poses potential balance problems for cursorial birds. To compensate, avians adapted to running maintain the femur subhorizontally, with its distal end(More)
Avian and mammalian endothermy results from elevated rates of resting, or routine, metabolism and enables these animals to maintain high and stable body temperatures in the face of variable ambient temperatures. Endothermy is also associated with enhanced stamina and elevated capacity for aerobic metabolism during periods of prolonged activity. These(More)
The structure and function of the nasal conchae of extant reptiles, birds, and mammals are reviewed, and the relationships to endothermy of the mammalian elements are examined. Reptilian conchae are relatively simple, recurved structures, which bear primarily sensory (olfactory) epithelium. Conversely, the conchae, or turbinates, of birds and mammals are(More)
The anterior orbital glands of tetrapods, which include the Harderian and nictitans glands, can usually be differentiated either anatomically (nictitans gland is more anterior) or histochemically (Harderian gland secretes lipids). However, conflicting statements exist in the literature about the presence and identity of these glands. Two previous studies on(More)
The function of the septomaxilla of nonmammalian synapsids has long been problematic. Distinctive features of this bone, including a prominent intranarial process and a septomaxillary canal and foramen, are characteristic of pelycosaurs and nonmammalian therapsids, but are lost in their mammalian descendants. Numerous contradictory reconstructions have been(More)
Rabbits have been proposed as a model organism for the human lacrimal apparatus (LA), including the nasolacrimal duct (NLD), based principally on comparative studies of adult morphology; however, little is known about its development. The NLD first appears as an incomplete primordium in the subcutaneous region of the primordial eyelid and subsequently(More)
Pterosaurs were the first vertebrates to achieve active flight, with some derived forms reaching enormous size. Accumulating fossil evidence confirms earlier indications that selection for large size in these flying forms resulted in a light, yet strong skeleton characterized by fusion of many bones of the trunk. However, this process also added mechanical(More)