Willard Cates

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CONTEXT In the United States, young people aged 15-24 represent 25% of the sexually experienced population. However, the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among this age-group are unknown. METHODS Data from a variety of sources were used to estimate the incidence and prevalence of STDs among 15-24-year-olds in the United(More)
Cervical injury is one of the most frequent complications of suction curettage abortion, yet little is known about its risk factors or prevention. In 15 438 suction curettage abortions carried out at less than or equal to 12 weeks' gestation in hospitals in the USA from 1975 to 1978 the incidence of cervical injury requiring suturing was 1.03 per 100(More)
Intensive research efforts for more than two decades have not yet resulted in an HIV vaccine of even moderate effectiveness. However, some progress has been made with other biomedical interventions, albeit on the basis of inconsistent levels of evidence. The male condom, if used correctly and consistently, has been proven in observational studies to be very(More)
OBJECTIVES The objective of this trial was to investigate the safety and preliminary effectiveness of a daily dose of 300 mg of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) versus placebo in preventing HIV infection in women. DESIGN This was a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING The study was conducted between June 2004 and March(More)
BACKGROUND Syphilis remains a significant cause of morbidity in many developing countries and in some areas within North America and Europe. Mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of sexually transmitted infections have provided insights of relevance both to the interpretation of observed epidemiological patterns and to the design of control(More)
Although uterine perforation is a potentially life-threatening complication of curettage abortion, little is known about the risk factors associated with uterine perforation or how to prevent it. Using linear logistic regression, we analyzed 67,175 curettage abortions performed at 13 institutions in the United States from 1975 through 1978. The overall(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the number of HIV-positive births currently prevented by contraceptive use in the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) focus countries and to estimate the first year cost savings to each country if unintended and unwanted HIV-positive births were prevented via contraceptive use rather than providing antiretroviral(More)
Genital chlamydial infection is increasing and is now more common than gonorrhea. A sizable percentage of chlamydial infections of the lower genital tract in women progress to endometritis and salpingitis. Tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy are important sequelae. Failure to control chlamydial infections reflects the following four factors: (1) Many(More)