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An early event in acute and chronic inflammation and associated diseases such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis is the induced expression of specific adhesion molecules on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs), which subsequently bind leukocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of(More)
The adipose-derived hormone leptin maintains energy balance in part through central nervous system-mediated increases in sympathetic outflow that enhance fat burning. Triggering of β-adrenergic receptors in adipocytes stimulates energy expenditure by cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent increases in lipolysis and fatty-acid oxidation. Although the mechanism is(More)
Osteopontin (OPN) is a proinflammatory cytokine and adhesion molecule implicated in the chemoattraction of monocytes and in cell-mediated immunity. We have recently reported that genetic OPN-deficiency attenuates the development of atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice identifying OPN as potential target for pharmacological intervention in atherosclerosis.(More)
Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes a number of factors that are increasingly recognized to contribute to systemic and vascular inflammation. Several of these factors, collectively referred to as adipokines, have now been shown regulate, directly or indirectly, a number of the processes that contribute to the development of(More)
PURPOSE To determine the antiangiogenic effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonists on ocular cells involved in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in vitro and on experimental laser photocoagulation-induced CNV in vivo. METHODS PPAR-gamma expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and(More)
Excess food intake leads to obesity and diabetes, both of which are well-known independent risk factors for atherosclerosis, and both of which are growing epidemics in an aging population. We hypothesized that aging enhances the metabolic and vascular effects of high fat diet (HFD) and therefore examined the effect of age on atherosclerosis and insulin(More)
OBJECTIVE Cardiac fibrosis is an important component of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands repress proinflammatory gene expression, including that of osteopontin, a known contributor to the development of myocardial fibrosis. We thus investigated the hypothesis that PPARgamma ligands could attenuate(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth and migration, but the signaling pathways mediating these VSMC behaviors critical to restenosis and atherosclerosis are not completely known. The purpose of the present investigation was to define the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Ang II-induced DNA synthesis,(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin II (Ang II) is implicated in cardiac remodeling and is increasingly recognized for its profibrotic activity. METHODS AND RESULTS Because little is known about the direct cellular effects of Ang II on human cardiac fibroblasts, we isolated fibroblasts from ventricles of explanted human hearts and added Ang II (100 nmol/L) to(More)