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The nuclear receptors LXRalpha and LXRbeta have been implicated in the control of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in multiple cell types. Activation of these receptors stimulates cholesterol efflux in macrophages, promotes bile acid synthesis in liver, and inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption, actions that would collectively be expected to(More)
An early event in acute and chronic inflammation and associated diseases such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis is the induced expression of specific adhesion molecules on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs), which subsequently bind leukocytes. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of(More)
Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes a number of factors that are increasingly recognized to contribute to systemic and vascular inflammation. Several of these factors, collectively referred to as adipokines, have now been shown regulate, directly or indirectly, a number of the processes that contribute to the development of(More)
BACKGROUND Troglitazone is a new insulin-sensitizing agent used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism by which troglitazone exerts its effect on systemic glucose metabolism is unknown. OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of 6 months of troglitazone monotherapy on glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. DESIGN Randomized,(More)
Angiotensin II (AII) is a critical factor in cardiac remodeling which involves hypertrophy, fibroblast proliferation, and extracellular matrix production. However, little is known about the mechanism by which AII accelerates these responses. Osteopontin is an acidic phosphoprotein with RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) sequences that are involved in the(More)
The rising prevalence of the insulin resistance syndrome in our society necessitates a better understanding of the genetic determinants of all aspects of insulin action and metabolism. We evaluated the heritability of insulin sensitivity and the metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI) as quantified by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp in 403 Mexican(More)
Angiotensin II (AII) plays a critical role in cardiac remodeling. This peptide promotes cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibroblast interstitial fibrotic changes associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, post myocardial infarction remodeling and congestive heart failure. AII mediates cardiac myocyte hypertrophy directly via induction of immediate(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth and migration, but the signaling pathways mediating these VSMC behaviors critical to restenosis and atherosclerosis are not completely known. The purpose of the present investigation was to define the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Ang II-induced DNA synthesis,(More)
Human ovarian follicular fluid contains renin-like activity. In normal women, circulating levels of prorenin, the biosynthetic precursor of renin (EC, change in parallel with changes in progesterone during the menstrual cycle. Therefore, the ovary has been implicated as a source of plasma prorenin. In the present studies, we report the finding of(More)
Antihypertensive treatment in the diabetic patient is a critical issue because hypertension has an impact on all of the vascular complications of diabetes, including nephropathy, retinopathy, atherosclerosis, and left ventricular hypertrophy. These complications are a consequence of altered endothelial-vascular smooth muscle interrelations that ultimately(More)