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The adipose-derived hormone leptin maintains energy balance in part through central nervous system-mediated increases in sympathetic outflow that enhance fat burning. Triggering of β-adrenergic receptors in adipocytes stimulates energy expenditure by cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent increases in lipolysis and fatty-acid oxidation. Although the mechanism is(More)
Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes a number of factors that are increasingly recognized to contribute to systemic and vascular inflammation. Several of these factors, collectively referred to as adipokines, have now been shown regulate, directly or indirectly, a number of the processes that contribute to the development of(More)
PURPOSE To determine the antiangiogenic effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma agonists on ocular cells involved in the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in vitro and on experimental laser photocoagulation-induced CNV in vivo. METHODS PPAR-gamma expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and(More)
OBJECTIVE Cardiac fibrosis is an important component of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) ligands repress proinflammatory gene expression, including that of osteopontin, a known contributor to the development of myocardial fibrosis. We thus investigated the hypothesis that PPARgamma ligands could attenuate(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) growth and migration, but the signaling pathways mediating these VSMC behaviors critical to restenosis and atherosclerosis are not completely known. The purpose of the present investigation was to define the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Ang II-induced DNA synthesis,(More)
-Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is a key event in neointimal formation and atherosclerosis that may be linked to the accumulation of inflammatory cells and release of chemotactic cytokines. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induces chemotaxis of inflammatory cells and fibroblasts, but little is known about chemotactic signaling by(More)
OBJECTIVE A small number of susceptibility genes for human type 2 diabetes have been identified by candidate gene analysis or positional cloning. Genes found to influence diabetes or related traits in mice are likely to be susceptibility genes in humans. SorCS1 is the gene identified as responsible for the mouse chromosome 19 T2dm2 quantitative trait locus(More)
OBJECTIVE The worldwide prevalence of obesity mandates a widely accessible tool to categorize adiposity that can best predict associated health risks. The body adiposity index (BAI) was designed as a single equation to predict body adiposity in pooled analysis of both genders. We compared body adiposity index (BAI), body mass index (BMI), and other(More)