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BACKGROUND An effective vaccine for malaria is urgently needed. Naturally acquired immunity to malaria develops slowly, and induction of protection in humans can be achieved artificially by the inoculation of radiation-attenuated sporozoites by means of more than 1000 infective mosquito bites. METHODS We exposed 15 healthy volunteers--with 10 assigned to(More)
Malaria kills >1 million people each year, in particular in sub-Saharan Africa. Although asexual forms are directly responsible for disease and death, sexual stages account for the transmission of Plasmodium parasites from human to the mosquito vector and therefore the spread of the parasite in the population. Development of a malaria vaccine is urgently(More)
Volunteers immunized under chloroquine chemoprophylaxis with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (CPS) develop complete, long-lasting protection against homologous sporozoite challenge. Chloroquine affects neither sporozoites nor liver-stages, but kills only asexual forms in erythrocytes once released from the liver into the circulation. Consequently, CPS(More)
Effective control and eventual eradication of malaria drives the imperative need for clinical development of a malaria vaccine. Asexual parasite forms are responsible for clinical disease and death while apathogenic gametocytes are responsible for transmission from man to mosquito. Vaccines that combine antigens from both stages may provide direct(More)
BACKGROUND Antibodies, particularly cytophilic IgG subclasses, with specificity for asexual blood stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, are thought to play an important role in acquired immunity to malaria. Evaluating such responses in longitudinal sero-epidemiological field studies, allied to increasing knowledge of the immunological mechanisms(More)
INTRODUCTION In the era of malaria elimination and eradication, drug-based and vaccine-based approaches to reduce malaria transmission are receiving greater attention. Such interventions require assays that reliably measure the transmission of Plasmodium from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes. METHODS WE COMPARED TWO COMMONLY USED MOSQUITO FEEDING ASSAY(More)
Malaria transmission blocking vaccines (TBV) directed against proteins expressed on sexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum in the mosquito midgut are considered an effective means to reduce malaria transmission. Antibodies induced by TBV block sporogonic development in the mosquito, and thus transmission to the next human host. The Pfs25 protein, expressed(More)
Pfs48/45, a member of a Plasmodium-specific protein family, displays conformation-dependent epitopes and is an important target for malaria transmission-blocking (TB) immunity. To design a recombinant Pfs48/45-based TB vaccine, we analyzed the conformational TB epitopes of Pfs48/45. The Pfs48/45 protein was found to consist of a C-terminal six-cysteine(More)
The genome of Plasmodium falciparum contains a small gene family that expresses proteins characterized by the presence of 6-cysteine domains. Most of these proteins are expressed on the surface of the parasite and some are known to play a role in cell-cell interactions. Two members of this family, Pfs48/45 and Pfs230, form a complex localized on the surface(More)