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Digital maps and route descriptions on a PDA have become very popular for navigation, not the least with the advent of the iPhone and its Google Maps application. A visual support for wayfinding, however, is not reasonable or even possible all the time. A pedestrian must pay attention to traffic on the street, a hiker should concentrate on the narrow trail,(More)
We present PocketMenu, a menu optimized for non-visual, in-pocket interaction with menus on handheld devices with touch screens. By laying out menu items along the border of the touch screen its tactile features guide the interaction. Additional vibro-tactile feedback and speech allows identifying the individual menu items non-visually. In an experiment, we(More)
Touch gestures become steadily more important with the ongoing success of touch screen devices. Compared to traditional user interfaces, gestures have the potential to lower cognitive load and the need for visual attention. However, nowadays gestures are defined by designers and developers and it is questionable if these meet all user requirements. In this(More)
Blind or visually impaired people usually do not leave their homes without any assistance, in order to visit unknown cities or places. One reason for this dilemma is, that it is hardly possible for them to gain a non-visual overview about the new place, its landmarks and geographic entities already at home. Sighted people can use a printed or digital map to(More)
In this paper, we report about a large-scale in-situ study of tactile feedback for pedestrian navigation systems. Recent advances in smartphone technology have enabled a number of interaction techniques for smartphone that use tactile feedback to deliver navigation information. The aim is to enable eyes-free usage and avoid distracting the user from the(More)
Visual and auditory displays successfully complement each other presenting information in car navigation systems. However, they distract the visual and auditory attention of the driver, which is needed in many primary driving tasks, such as maneuvering the car or observing the traffic. Tactile interfaces can form an alternative way to display spatial(More)
Today's smartphones will issue a notification immediately after an event occurs, repeating unanswered notifications in fixed time intervals. The disadvantage of this issue-and-repeat strategy is that notifications can appear in inconvenient situations and thus are perceived as annoying and interrupting. The authors study the mobile context as inferred(More)
Tactile displays consisting of tactors located around the user's waist are a proven means for displaying directions in the horizontal plane. These displays use the body location of tactors to express directions. In current implementations the number of directions that can be expressed is limited to the number of tactors. However, the required number of(More)
The number of assistance systems in cars has been increasing in recent years. While these systems are targeted at supporting the individual driver and his or her safety, they may though compete for the driver's attention, and may demand too much of the driver's cognitive resources. Based on the established multiple resource theory in recent years, the use(More)
City maps are an important means to get an impression of the structure of cities. They represent visual abstraction of urban areas with different geographic entities, their locations, and spatial relations. However, this information is not sufficiently accessible today to blind and visually impaired people. To provide a non-visual access to map information,(More)