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The detection of misuse with naturally occurring steroids is a great challenge for doping control laboratories. Intake of natural anabolic steroids alters the steroid profile. Thus, screening for exogenous use of these steroids can be established by monitoring a range of endogenous steroids, which constitute the steroid profile, and evaluate their(More)
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are misused to a high extent in sports by athletes to improve their physical performance. Sports federations consider the use of these drugs in sports as doping. The misuse of AAS is controlled by detection of the parent AAS (when excreted into urine) and (or) their metabolites in urine of athletes. I present a review of(More)
Testosterone is the principal male sex hormone. As with all natural steroids, it is biosynthesized from cholesterol. Phase I metabolism employs some very specific enzymes and pathways. Phase II metabolism and excretion follow more general patterns. The effects of testosterone are twofold: anabolic and androgenic. Because of its anabolic effects,(More)
Several recent studies have shown evidence of some nutritional supplements containing prohibited anabolic androgenic steroids, so-called prohormones, which were not declared on the label. Therefore, a broad-based investigation of the international nutritional supplement market was initiated to clarify the extent of this problem. From October 2000 until(More)
A new multi-target approach based on liquid chromatography--electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-(ESI)-MS/MS) is presented to screen for various classes of prohibited substances using direct injection of urine specimens. With a highly sensitive new generation hybrid mass spectrometer classic groups of drugs--for example, diuretics,(More)
Boldenone is one of the most frequently detected anabolic androgenic steroids in doping control analysis. Boldenone misuse is commonly detected by the identification of the active drug and its main metabolite, 5β-androst-1-en-17β-ol-3-one (BM1), by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), after previous hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase enzymes,(More)
PURPOSE The correct assessment of energy expenditure (EE) in athletes is important to ensure that dietary energy intake is sufficient. In general, athletes are individuals with especially high levels of total EE (TEE) and exercise-related EE (ExEE). The SenseWear Pro3 Armband (SWA) is a multisensor device for the individual assessment of EE, but data on the(More)
One of the most frequently misused steroid precursors (prohormones) is 19-norandrostenedione (4-estrene-3,17-dione, NOR), which is, after oral administration, readily metabolised to nortestosterone, also known as nandrolone (durabolin). In this study we have characterised molecular mechanisms of its action determined its tissue specific androgenic and(More)
Endogenous steroids are amongst the most misused doping agents in sports. Their presence poses a major challenge for doping control laboratories. Current threshold levels do not allow for the detection of all endogenous steroid misuse due to great interindividual variations in urinary steroid concentrations. A method has been developed and validated to(More)
RATIONALE A plethora of compounds potentially leading to drug candidates that affect skeletal muscle function and, more specifically, mitochondrial biogenesis, has been under (pre)clinical investigation for rare as well as more common diseases. Some of these compounds could be the object of misuse by athletes aiming at artificial and/or illicit and(More)