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In response to herbivore damage, several plant species emit volatiles that attract natural predators of the attacking herbivores. Using spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) and predatory mites (Phytoseiulus persimilis), it has been shown that not only the attacked plant but also neighbouring plants are affected, becoming more attractive to predatory mites and(More)
Plants are able to respond to herbivore damage with de novo biosynthesis of an herbivore-characteristic blend of volatiles. The signal transduction initiating volatile biosynthesis may involve the activation of the octadecanoid pathway, as exemplified by the transient increase of endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) in leaves of lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) after(More)
Obligate Acacia ant plants house mutualistic ants as a defense mechanism and provide them with extrafloral nectar (EFN). Ant/plant mutualisms are widespread, but little is known about the biochemical basis of their species specificity. Despite its importance in these and other plant/animal interactions, little attention has been paid to the control of the(More)
Indirect responses are defensive strategies by which plants attract natural enemies of their herbivores that act as plant defending agents. Such defences can be either constitutively expressed or induced by the combined action of mechanical damage and low- or high-molecular-weight elicitors from the attacking herbivore. Here, we focus on two induced(More)
Membrane potentials (V(m)) and intracellular calcium variations were studied in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves when the Mediterranean climbing cutworm (Spodoptera littoralis) was attacking the plants. In addition to the effect of the feeding insect the impact of several N-acyl Glns (volicitin, N-palmitoyl-Gln, N-linolenoyl-Gln) from the larval oral(More)
Many plants attract their pollinators with floral scents, and these olfactory signals are especially important at night, when visual signals become inefficient. Dynastid scarab beetles are a speciose group of night-active pollinators, and several plants pollinated by these insects have methoxylated aromatic compounds in their scents. However, there is a(More)
Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in induced plant defence e.g. by regulating the biosynthesis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that mediate the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. Moreover, exogenous application of JA can be used to elicit plant defence responses similar to those induced by biting-chewing herbivores and mites that pierce(More)
Females of the European beewolf, Philanthus triangulum, possess a large glove-shaped gland in the head, the postpharyngeal gland (PPG). They apply the content of the PPG to their prey, paralyzed honeybees, where it delays fungal infestation. Here, we describe the chemical composition of the gland by using combined GC-MS, GC-FTIR, and derivatization. The PPG(More)
The gut microbiota is of crucial importance for the host with considerable metabolic activity. Although great efforts have been made toward characterizing microbial diversity, measuring components' metabolic activity surprisingly hasn't kept pace. Here we combined pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes with in vivo stable isotope probing (Pyro-SIP) to(More)
Induced plant resistance traits are expressed in response to attack and occur throughout the plant kingdom. Despite their general occurrence, the evolution of such resistances has rarely been investigated. Here we report that extrafloral nectar, a usually inducible trait, is constitutively secreted by Central American Acacia species that are obligately(More)