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This paper discusses measures to make a distributed system based on the Time-Triggered Architecture resistant to arbitrary node failures. To achieve this, the presented approach introduces a central guardian as part of the interconnection network. This guardian acts as a supervising unit to node computers by checking for fault hypothesis compliance at their(More)
Although pollen dispersal has been extensively studied in trees, parameters influencing between-population variation are still poorly understood. In this study, we conducted paternity analyses on open-pollinated seeds in four natural populations of wild cherry (Prunus avium) with contrasting density and clonal propagation, using eight microsatellite loci(More)
The increasing performance of modern model-checking tools offers high potential for the computer-aided design of fault-tolerant algorithms. Instead of relying on human imagination to generate taxing failure scenarios to probe a fault-tolerant algorithm during development, we define the fault behavior of a faulty process at its interfaces to the remaining(More)
Immediately after power-up, synchronous distributed systems need some time until essential timing properties, which are required to operate correctly, are established. We say that synchronous systems are initially in asynchronous operation. In this paper, we present an algorithm and architectural guidelines that assure the transition from asyn-chronous to(More)
Embedded real-time systems are increasingly used in control applications. To guarantee the safe operation it is required to verify that the system can complete its tasks within their deadlines. Therefore, it is important to know the worst-case execution time (WCET) of the code running on the system. For the precise calculation of the WCET, the code has to(More)
In this paper we are interested in safety-critical distributed systems, composed of heterogeneous processing elements interconnected using the TTEthernet protocol. We address hard real-time mixed-criticality applications, which may have different criticality levels, and we focus on the optimization of the communication configuration. TTEthernet integrates(More)
Clock synchronization is the foundation of distributed real-time architectures such as the Timed-Triggered Architecture. Maintaining the local clocks synchronized is particularly important for fault tolerance, as it allows one to use simple and effective fault-tolerance algorithms that have been developed in the synchronous system model. Clock(More)
TTEthernet is a communication infrastructure for mixed-criticality systems that integrates dataflow from applications with different criticality levels on a single network. For applications of highest criticality, TTEthernet provides a synchronization strategy that tolerates multiple failures. The resulting fault-tolerant timebase can then be used for(More)