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This paper discusses measures to make a distributed system based on the Time-Triggered Architecture resistant to arbitrary node failures. To achieve this, the presented approach introduces a central guardian as part of the interconnection network. This guardian acts as a supervising unit to node computers by checking for fault hypothesis compliance at their(More)
Although pollen dispersal has been extensively studied in trees, parameters influencing between-population variation are still poorly understood. In this study, we conducted paternity analyses on open-pollinated seeds in four natural populations of wild cherry (Prunus avium) with contrasting density and clonal propagation, using eight microsatellite loci(More)
The increasing performance of modern model-checking tools offers high potential for the computer-aided design of fault-tolerant algorithms. Instead of relying on human imagination to generate taxing failure scenarios to probe a fault-tolerant algorithm during development, we define the fault behavior of a faulty process at its interfaces to the remaining(More)
Immediately after power-up, synchronous distributed systems need some time until essential timing properties, which are required to operate correctly, are established. We say that synchronous systems are initially in asynchronous operation. In this paper, we present an algorithm and architectural guidelines that assure the transition from asyn-chronous to(More)
In this paper we are interested in safety-critical distributed systems, composed of heterogeneous processing elements interconnected using the TTEthernet protocol. We address hard real-time mixed-criticality applications, which may have different criticality levels, and we focus on the optimization of the communication configuration. TTEthernet integrates(More)
Throughout many application areas of embedded and cyber-physical systems there is a demand to integrate more and more applications such that they share common resources. These applications may have different levels of criticality with respect to temporal or fault-tolerance properties and we call the result of their integration a mixed-criticality system.(More)
TTEthernet is a communication infrastructure for mixed-criticality systems that integrates dataflow from applications with different criticality levels on a single network. For applications of highest criticality, TTEthernet provides a synchronization strategy that tolerates multiple failures. The resulting fault-tolerant timebase can then be used for(More)
Fault-tolerant time-triggered communication relies on the synchronization of local clocks. The startup problem is the problem of reaching a sufficient degree of synchronization after power-on of the system. The complexity of this problem naturally depends on the system assumptions. The system assumptions in this paper were compiled from cooperation with(More)
Clock synchronization is the foundation of distributed real-time architectures such as the Timed-Triggered Architecture. Maintaining the local clocks synchronized is particularly important for fault tolerance, as it allows one to use simple and effective fault-tolerance algorithms that have been developed in the synchronous system model. Clock(More)