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It is widely accepted that unrepaired or misrepaired DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) lead to the formation of chromosome aberrations. DSBs induced in the DNA of higher eukaryotes by endogenous processes or exogenous agents can in principle be repaired either by non-homologous endjoining (NHEJ), or homology directed repair (HDR). The basis on which the(More)
Micronuclei can be measured through a conventional method after staining with Giemsa or fluorescence dyes for DNA. However, a technique with cell proliferation control should be preferred. This is done by incubation with cytochalasin B and counting the micronuclei in binucleated cells. Satisfactory dose relationships are observed after irradiation of human(More)
Manual and automatic scoring of micronuclei (MN) in binucleated human lymphocytes (BNC) were compared after irradiation of whole blood samples. The blood samples were irradiated with X-ray doses (1, 2 or 3 Gy) and stained with Giemsa. The preparation technique was optimized in such a way that acceptable conditions (cell density, contrast) were obtained for(More)
In the last decade the 'comet assay' or 'single cell gel electrophoresis assay' has been established as a sensitive method for the detection of DNA damage and the measurement of its recovery. The results published in the literature have often been obtained with different methods for comet structure measurement. In most cases these data are not comparable(More)
Automatic cell cycle analysis (DNA histograms) is usually performed with flow cytometry. In cases when only few cells are available, the DNA content has to be measured with a fluorescence microscope combined with sensitive camera systems (SIT, MCP, cooled CCDs) and a frame grabber for image analysis. The fluorescent cells are observed on the monitor of the(More)
BACKGROUND The "comet assay" has become an interesting and a very useful tool for the analysis of the induction and amount of DNA damage in single cells thus offering the opportunity to measure the effectiveness of DNA repair. On the basis of the Ostling and Johanson protocol we have developed a modified method with increased sensitivity and high(More)
We used the 'comet assay' to compare the amount of radiation-induced DNA damage in three tumour cell lines (MeWo, PECA 4451 and PECA 4197) and the extent of DNA repair in two of these lines (MeWo and PECA 4197). Tumour cells were irradiated with X-rays (0.1-10 Gy), embedded in agarose on slides, lysed with sodium dodecyl sulphate and exposed to an electric(More)
In eukaryotic cells, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) cause the prompt phosphorylation of serine 139 at the carboxy terminus of histone H2AX to generate gamma-H2AX, detectable by Western blotting or immunofluorescence. The consensus sequence at the phosphorylation site implicates the phosphatidylinositol 3-like family of protein kinases in H2AX(More)
BACKGROUND Recently the "comet assay" or "single-cell gel electrophoresis assay" has been established as a sensitive method for the detection of DNA damage and repair. Most of the software now available to quantify various parameters for DNA damage requires the interaction of a human observer. In this report, we describe an automated analysis system that is(More)
Observation and counting of gamma-H2AX foci in untreated cells as well as in cells exposed to cytotoxic agents is a widely used method for documenting the presence of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the DNA and for analysis of their repair. Similar methods are employed to analyze formation of foci by a variety of proteins implicated in the cellular responses(More)