Wilfrido A. Clara

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BACKGROUND The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the incidence of influenza-virus-associated severe pneumonia among Salvadorian children aged < 5 years. METHODS Data on children aged < 5 years admitted with severe pneumonia to a sentinel hospital in the western region were collected weekly. Nasal and oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected from a convenience sample of case(More)
Human research is necessary for establishing the best approaches to health care, and should be overseen by a functional research ethics committee. However, in most low-income countries these committees are inadequate in providing the guidelines needed to ensure that ethics remain a prominent feature of human research. We developed a model of interaction(More)
OBJECTIVE The lack of well-trained, dedicated infection control personnel prevents optimal control of nosocomial infections in Latin American pediatric oncology centers. We collaboratively planned and implemented a multinational training course in San Salvador, El Salvador, to address this need. METHODS The course relied on its organizers' experience in(More)
BACKGROUND In view of ongoing pandemic threats such as the recent human cases of novel avian influenza A(H7N9) in China, it is important that all countries continue their preparedness efforts. Since 2006, Central American countries have received donor funding and technical assistance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to build(More)
BACKGROUND Influenza-associated illness results in increased morbidity and mortality in the Americas. These effects can be mitigated with an appropriately chosen and timed influenza vaccination campaign. To provide guidance in choosing the most suitable vaccine formulation and timing of administration, it is necessary to understand the timing of influenza(More)
BACKGROUND We have previously estimated that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was associated with 22% of all episodes of (severe) acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) resulting in 55 000 to 199 000 deaths in children younger than 5 years in 2005. In the past 5 years, major research activity on RSV has yielded substantial new data from developing(More)
BACKGROUND Since 2004, the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccines in Latin America and the Caribbean has markedly increased. However, vaccine effectiveness (VE) is not routinely measured in the region. We assessed the feasibility of using routine surveillance data collected by sentinel hospitals to estimate influenza VE during 2012 against(More)
Seasonal influenza affects a considerable proportion of the global population each year. We assessed the association between subnational influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in three Central America countries, i.e. Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua. Using virologic data from each country's national influenza centre, rainfall(More)
Goddard Earth Sciences Technology and Research (GESTAR), Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, Maryland, USA 2 Global Change Data Center, Code 610.2, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA Influenza Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Regional Office for Central America Region, Guatemala City, Guatemala(More)