Wilfredo F. Garcia-Beltran

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BACKGROUND Viruses can evade immune surveillance, but the underlying mechanisms are insufficiently understood. Here, we sought to understand the mechanisms by which natural killer (NK) cells recognize HIV-1-infected cells and how this virus can evade NK-cell-mediated immune pressure. METHODS AND FINDINGS Two sequence mutations in p24 Gag associated with(More)
The activating natural killer (NK)-cell receptor KIR3DS1 has been linked to the outcome of various human diseases, including delayed progression of disease caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), yet a ligand that would account for its biological effects has remained unknown. We screened 100 HLA class I proteins and found that KIR3DS1 bound(More)
Transcutaneous administration has the potential to improve therapeutics delivery, providing an approach that is safer and more convenient than traditional alternatives, while offering the opportunity for improved therapeutic efficacy through sustained/controlled drug release. To this end, we demonstrate a microneedle materials platform for rapid(More)
High cholesterol levels are an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the world's leading cause of death. Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (statins) are prescribed to lower serum cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of CVD. Despite the success of statins, many patients abandon treatment owing to(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells constitutively express high levels of Tim-3, an immunoregulatory molecule recently proposed to be a marker for mature and functional NK cells. Whether HIV-1 infection modulates the expression of Tim-3 on NK cells, or the levels of its ligand Galectin-9 (Gal-9), and how signaling through these molecules affects the NK cell response(More)
Approximately 30-50% of the >30 million HIV-infected subjects develop neurological complications ranging from mild symptoms to dementia. HIV does not infect neurons, and the molecular mechanisms behind HIV-associated neurocognitive decline are not understood. There are several hypotheses to explain the development of dementia in HIV(+) individuals,(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to assess the consequence of sequence variations in HLA-C03:04-presented HIV-1 p24 Gag epitopes on binding of the inhibitory natural killer (NK) cell receptor KIR2DL2 to HLA-C03:04. DESIGN HIV-1 may possibly evade recognition by KIR+ NK cells through selection of sequence variants that interfere with the interactions of(More)
Viral infections can affect the glycosylation pattern of glycoproteins involved in antiviral immunity. Given the importance of protein glycosylation for immune function, we investigated the effect that modulation of the highly conserved HLA class I N-glycan has on KIR:HLA interactions and NK cell function. We focused on HLA-B*57:01 and its interaction with(More)
Host proteins are essential for HIV entry and replication and can be important nonviral therapeutic targets. Large-scale RNA interference (RNAi)-based screens have identified nearly a thousand candidate host factors, but there is little agreement among studies and few factors have been validated. Here we demonstrate that a genome-wide CRISPR-based screen(More)
Progressive HIV-1 infection leads to both profound immune suppression and pathologic inflammation in the majority of infected individuals. While adaptive immune dysfunction, as evidenced by CD4(+) T cell depletion and exhaustion, has been extensively studied, less is known about the functional capacity of innate immune cell populations in the context of(More)