Wilfred Ndifon

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It is generally assumed that amino acid mutations in the surface protein, hemagglutinin (HA), of influenza viruses allow these viruses to circumvent neutralization by antibodies induced during infection. However, empirical data on circulating influenza viruses show that certain amino acid changes to HA actually increase the efficiency of neutralization of(More)
The adaptive arm of the immune system has been suggested as an important factor in brain function. However, given the fact that interactions of neurons or glial cells with T lymphocytes rarely occur within the healthy CNS parenchyma, the underlying mechanism is still a mystery. Here we found that at the interface between the brain and blood circulation, the(More)
The hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay is the main tool used by epidemiologists to quantify antigenic differences between circulating influenza virus strains, with the goal of selecting suitable vaccine strains. However, such quantitative measures of antigenic difference were recently shown to have poor predictive accuracy with respect to influenza(More)
SUMMARY High-throughput sequencing provides an opportunity to analyse the repertoire of antigen-specific receptors with an unprecedented breadth and depth. However, the quantity of raw data produced by this technology requires efficient ways to categorize and store the output for subsequent analysis. To this end, we have defined a simple five-item(More)
T cells play fundamental roles in adaptive immunity, relying on a diverse repertoire of T-cell receptor (TCR) α and β chains. Diversity of the TCR β chain is generated in part by a random yet intrinsically biased combinatorial rearrangement of variable (Vβ), diversity (Dβ), and joining (Jβ) gene segments. The mechanisms that determine biases in gene segment(More)
Reduction in T cell receptor (TCR) diversity in old age is considered as a major cause for immune complications in the elderly population. Here, we explored the consequences of aging on the TCR repertoire in mice using high-throughput sequencing (TCR-seq). We mapped the TCRβ repertoire of CD4+ T cells isolated from bone marrow (BM) and spleen of young and(More)
The T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is formed by random recombinations of genomic precursor elements; the resulting combinatorial diversity renders unlikely extensive TCR sharing between individuals. Here, we studied CDR3β amino acid sequence sharing in a repertoire-wide manner, using high-throughput TCR-seq in 28 healthy mice. We uncovered hundreds of(More)
The mechanisms by which adaptive phenotypes spread within an evolving population after their emergence are understood fairly well. Much less is known about the factors that influence the evolutionary accessibility of such phenotypes, a pre-requisite for their emergence in a population. Here, we investigate the influence of environmental quality on the(More)
BACKGROUND Two important challenges to the use of serological assays for influenza surveillance include the substantial amount of experimental effort involved and the inherent noisiness of serological data. RESULTS I show that log-transformed serological data exist in an effectively one-dimensional space. I use this result, together with new mechanistic(More)