Learn More
Smoking is a common risk factor for many diseases. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses for the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in smokers (n = 31,266) and smoking initiation (n = 46,481) using samples from the ENGAGE Consortium. In a second stage, we tested selected SNPs with in silico replication in the Tobacco and Genetics (TAG)(More)
PURPOSE The phase III Iressa Survival Evaluation in Lung Cancer (ISEL) trial compared gefitinib with placebo in 1,692 patients with refractory advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. We analyzed ISEL tumor biopsy samples to examine relationships between biomarkers and clinical outcome after gefitinib treatment in a placebo-controlled setting. METHODS(More)
HER-2/neu gene amplification and cell surface overexpression are important factors in breast cancer for prognosis and prediction of sensitivity to anti-HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody therapy. In lung cancer, the clinical significance of HER-2/neu expression is currently under evaluation. We investigated 238 non-small lung carcinomas for HER-2/neu protein(More)
Although a primary role of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is the phagocytosis of aged outer segment membranes, the RPE may also phagocytize particulates via several specific receptors that are characteristically present on mononuclear phagocytes of bone marrow origin. In recent immunophenotypic studies, CD68 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been shown(More)
NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1, EC 1.6.99.2) is an obligate two-electron reductase that can either bioactivate or detoxify quinones and has been proposed to play an important role in chemoprevention. We have previously characterized a homozygous point mutation in the BE human colon carcinoma cell line that leads to a loss of NQO1 activity. Sequence(More)
BACKGROUND Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. New diagnostics are needed to detect early stage lung cancer because it may be cured with surgery. However, most cases are diagnosed too late for curative surgery. Here we present a comprehensive clinical biomarker study of lung cancer and the first large-scale clinical application of a(More)
MOTIVATION Recent years' exponential increase in DNA microarrays experiments has motivated the development of many signal quantitation (SQ) algorithms. These algorithms perform various transformations on the actual measurements aimed to enable researchers to compare readings of different genes quantitatively within one experiment and across separate(More)
The use of 5-methylcytosine demethylating agents in conjunction with inhibitors of histone deacetylation may offer a new therapeutic strategy for lung cancer. Monitoring the efficacy of gene demethylating treatment directly within the tumour may be difficult due to tumour location. This study determined the positive and negative predictive values of sputum(More)
Using Icelandic whole-genome sequence data and an imputation approach we searched for rare sequence variants in CHRNA4 and tested them for association with nicotine dependence. We show that carriers of a rare missense variant (allele frequency=0.24%) within CHRNA4, encoding an R336C substitution, have greater risk of nicotine addiction than non-carriers as(More)
CT screening for lung cancer is effective in reducing mortality, but there are areas of concern, including a positive predictive value of 4% and development of interval cancers. A blood test that could manage these limitations would be useful, but development of such tests has been impaired by variations in blood collection that may lead to poor(More)