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BACKGROUND Imaging studies of patients with schizophrenia have demonstrated that brain abnormalities are largely confined to decreases in gray matter volume and enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. Global gray matter volume has been reported to progressively decrease in childhood-onset and chronic schizophrenia. Global gray matter volumes have(More)
CONTEXT Smaller brain volumes have consistently been found in patients with schizophrenia, particularly in gray matter and medial temporal lobe structures. Although several studies have investigated brain volumes in nonpsychotic relatives of patients with schizophrenia, results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To determine the magnitude and extent of(More)
Gray matter changes have been demonstrated in several regions in schizophrenia. Particularly, the frontal and temporal cortices and amygdala-hippocampal region have been found decreased in volume and density in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. These abnormalities may reflect an aberrant neuronal network in schizophrenia, suggesting that white(More)
Although structural brain alterations in schizophrenia have been demonstrated extensively, their quantitative distribution has not been studied over the last 14 years despite advances in neuroimaging. Moreover, a volumetric meta-analysis has not been conducted in antipsychotic-naive patients. Therefore, meta-analysis on cross-sectional volumetric brain(More)
BACKGROUND Considering the magnitude of the reported changes in brain volume over time in first-episode patients it is unlikely that these changes are constant over the life-span of the schizophrenic illness. Thus, one would expect the progression in brain volume change in schizophrenia to follow a more complex trajectory over time. METHODS Two magnetic(More)
A homozygous mutation of the CNTNAP2 gene has been associated with a syndrome of focal epilepsy, mental retardation, language regression and other neuropsychiatric problems in children of the Old Order Amish community. Here we report genomic rearrangements resulting in haploinsufficiency of the CNTNAP2 gene in association with epilepsy and schizophrenia.(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies have shown that the ability to suppress automatic saccadic eye movements is impaired in patients with schizophrenia as well as in their first-degree relatives, and suggest that this impairment is a potential vulnerability marker for schizophrenia. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying normal saccade production and inhibition,(More)
OBJECTIVE Cerebral gray matter volume reductions have been found to progress over time in schizophrenia, with larger decreases related to poorer outcome, which has also been associated with cannabis use in schizophrenia patients. Progressive gray matter changes in patients who use cannabis may be more extensive than in those who do not. METHOD Patients(More)
Schizophrenia has been conceptualized as a disorder of brain connectivity. Recent studies suggest that brain connectivity may be disproportionally impaired among the so-called rich club. This small core of densely interconnected hub regions has been hypothesized to form an important infrastructure for global brain communication and integration of(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this multicenter randomised clinical trial was to examine the effect of exercise versus occupational therapy on mental and physical health in schizophrenia patients. METHOD Sixty-three patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to 2 h of structured exercise (n = 31) or occupational therapy (n = 32) weekly for 6 months.(More)