Learn More
The chemokine Cxcl12 binds Cxcr4 and Cxcr7 receptors to control cell migration in multiple biological contexts, including brain development, leukocyte trafficking, and tumorigenesis. Both receptors are expressed in the CNS, but how they cooperate during migration has not been elucidated. Here, we used the migration of cortical interneurons as a model to(More)
The possibility that postsynaptic spines on neuronal dendrites are discrete biochemical compartments for Ca(2+)-activated processes involved in synaptic plasticity is a widely proposed concept that has eluded experimental demonstration. Using microfluorometry on CA3 neurons in hippocampal slices, we show here that with weak presynaptic stimulation of(More)
1. Muscarinic agonists when applied in the hippocampus at low concentrations suppress intrinsic controls on neuronal excitability through the block of Ca(2+)-activated K conductance(s), gK (Ca), underlying the adaptation of firing and slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP) in CA1 and CA3 neurons. Carbachol, for example, is effective at 0.1-0.3 microM suggesting(More)
Muscarinic synaptic activation is known to be involved in cortical arousal as well as learning. Although simple increases in the electrical responsiveness of neurons might be the basis of arousal, the linkage of muscarinic transmission to the synaptic plasticity that might underlie learning is lacking. Most models of synaptic plasticity involve postsynaptic(More)
Neurogenesis in the adult dentate gyrus (DG) generates new granule neurons that differentiate in the inner one-third of the granule cell layer (GCL). The migrating precursors of these neurons arise from neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subgranular zone (SGZ). Although it is established that pathological conditions, including epilepsy and stroke, cause(More)
BACKGROUND The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in kidney development by regulating formation of the glomerular tuft. Recently, a second CXCL12 receptor was identified and designated CXCR7. Although it is established that CXCR7 regulates heart and brain development in conjunction with CXCL12 and CXCR4, little is known about the influence of CXCR7 on CXCL12(More)
Neuronal communication in the brain involves electrochemical currents, which produce magnetic fields. Stimulus-evoked brain responses lead to changes in these fields and can be studied using magneto- and electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG). In this paper we model the spatiotemporal distribution of the magnetic field of a physiologically idealized but(More)
The chemokine receptor CXCR4 regulates cell migration during ontogenesis and disease states including cancer and inflammation. Upon stimulation by the endogenous ligand CXCL12, CXCR4 becomes phosphorylated at multiple sites in its C-terminal domain. Mutations in the CXCR4 gene affecting C-terminal phosphorylation sites are a hallmark of WHIM syndrome, a(More)
Postsynaptic Ca2+ changes are involved in control of cellular excitability and induction of synaptic long-term changes. We monitored Ca2+ changes in dendrites and spines during synaptic and direct stimulation using high resolution microfluorometry of fura-2 injected into CA3 pyramidal neurons in guinea pig hippocampal slice. When driven by current injection(More)
Intracellular Ca2+ dynamics have been measured using imaging techniques in dendrites and spines of CA3 hippocampal neurons in brain slice under both acute and tissue culture conditions. In response to presynaptic stimulation, micromolar levels of Ca2+ are rapidly reached in spines of distal dendrites. If stimulus parameters are chosen judiciously so as to(More)