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BACKGROUND & AIMS Helicobacter pylori infects half of the world's population, thereby causing significant human morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms by which professional antigen-presenting cells recognize the microbe are poorly understood. METHODS Using dendritic cells (DCs) from TRIF, MyD88, TLR 2/4/7/9(-/-), and multiple double/triple/quadruple(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Recognition of infection leads to induction of adaptive immunity through activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Among APCs, dendritic cells (DCs) have the unique capacity to deliver antigens from the periphery to T cells in secondary lymphoid organs. METHODS We analyzed molecular mechanisms of the Helicobacter pylori-induced APC(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in regulating immunity, establishing immunologically privileged tissue microenvironments and maintaining homoeostasis. It is becoming increasingly clear that one key mechanism that mediates many DC functions is production of the immunomodulatory enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). For pathogens that cause(More)
Leishmania major is an aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The parasite primarily infects immune sentinel cells, specifically macrophages and dendritic cells, in the mammalian host. Infection is receptor mediated and is known to involve parasite binding to cell surface protein complement receptor 3 (CR3, Mac-1, CD11b/CD18). Engagement of CR3 by(More)
Leishmania are intracellular parasites adapted to surviving in macrophages, whose primary function is elimination of invading pathogens. Leishmania entry into host cells is receptor-mediated. These parasites are able to engage multiple host cell-surface receptors, including MR, TLRs, CR3, and FcγRs. Here, we investigated the role of CR3 and FcγR engagement(More)
Human-pathogenic Bartonella henselae causes cat scratch disease and vasculoproliferative disorders. An important pathogenicity factor of B. henselae is the trimeric autotransporter adhesin (TAA) Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), which is modularly constructed, consisting of a head, a long and repetitive neck-stalk module, and a membrane anchor. BadA is involved(More)
The contribution of myeloid cells to tumour microenvironments is a decisive factor in cancer progression. Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) mediate tumour invasion and angiogenesis through matrix remodelling, immune modulation and release of pro-angiogenic cytokines. Nothing is known about how pathogenic bacteria affect myeloid cells in these processes.(More)
Bacterial adherence determines the virulence of many human-pathogenic bacteria. Experimental approaches elucidating this early infection event in greater detail have been performed using mainly methods of cellular microbiology. However, in vitro infections of cell monolayers reflect the in vivo situation only partially, and animal infection models are not(More)
Bartonella henselae is a highly prevalent, vector-borne pathogen. Transmission to humans and animals by ticks is discussed controversially. Here, we present a case report, where eleven Ixodes ricinus ticks all harbouring B. henselae DNA were removed from one single cat. The first feeding tick was tested positive for B. henselae DNA. The cat was also found(More)
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