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Remyelination following central nervous system demyelination is essential to prevent axon degeneration. However, remyelination ultimately fails in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. This failure of remyelination is likely mediated by many factors, including changes in the extracellular signalling environment. Here, we examined the expression(More)
Depending on the stage of development, a growth factor can mediate cell proliferation, survival or differentiation. The interaction of cell-surface integrins with extracellular matrix ligands can regulate growth factor responses and thus may influence the effect mediated by the growth factor. Here we show, by using mice lacking the alpha(6) integrin(More)
In the central nervous system, a multilayered membrane layer known as the myelin sheath enwraps axons, and is required for optimal saltatory signal conductance. The sheath develops from membrane processes that extend from the plasma membrane of oligodendrocytes and displays a unique lipid and protein composition. Myelin biogenesis is carefully regulated,(More)
Central nervous system (CNS) development requires mechanisms for the regulation of cell number. Although growth factors are essential determinants of the proliferation and apoptosis that determine final numbers, the long-range nature of signals from diffusible growth factors makes them insufficient for the provision of the precise and localized signals(More)
Central nervous system development requires precise and localized regulation of neural precursor behaviour. Here we show how the interaction between growth factor and integrin signalling pathways provides a mechanism for such precision in oligodendrocyte progenitor (OP) proliferation. While physiological concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor(More)
In vertebrates, myelination is required for the saltatory signal conductance along the axon. At the onset of myelination, the myelinating cells, i.e., oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, are heavily engaged in the biogenesis of membranes that are wrapped around the axon to form the myelin(More)
Myelination represents a remarkable example of cell specialization and cell-cell interaction in development. During this process, axons are wrapped by concentric layers of cell membrane derived either from central nervous system (CNS) oligodendrocytes or peripheral nervous system Schwann cells. In the CNS, oligodendrocytes elaborate a membranous extension(More)
An in vitro myelinating mouse-derived model system has been adapted and optimized for fetal rat brain. In these mixed brain cell (MBC) cultures, myelinogenesis was studied by examining the effect of signaling pathways that are involved in the timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation. When PMA, a protein kinase C (PKC) activator, was kept present during(More)
In a previous study, we showed that activation of protein kinase C (PKC) prevents oligodendrocyte differentiation at the pro-oligodendrocyte stage. The present study was undertaken to identify downstream targets of PKC action in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Activation of PKC induced the predominant phosphorylation of an 80-kD protein, identified as(More)
Myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes (OLGs) is essential for proper saltatory nerve conduction, i.e., rapid transmission of nerve impulses. Among others, extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, neuronal signaling, and axonal adhesion regulate the biogenesis and maintenance of myelin membranes, driven by polarized transport of myelin-specific proteins and(More)