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The objective of this study was to determine the utility of a passive gravity-balanced arm orthosis, the Wilmington robotic exoskeleton (WREX), for patients with neuromuscular diseases. The WREX, a four-degrees-of-freedom functional orthosis, is energized by rubber bands to eliminate gravity and is attached to the wheelchair. The development and clinical(More)
This article presents the state of the art in passive devices for enhancing limb movement in people with neuromuscular disabilities. Both upper- and lower-limb projects and devices are described. Special emphasis is placed on a passive functional upper-limb orthosis called the Wilmington Robotic Exoskeleton (WREX). The development and testing of the WREX(More)
Improved scanning techniques, positioning, and adjustments in instrumentation have been developed on the basis of more than 1,500 ultrasound examinations of the upper abdomen and high retroperitoneum. The latest instrumentation was employed, including gray-scale signal processing and focused transducers. These methods have resulted in improved visualization(More)
This paper describes the development and preliminary testing of a functional upper-limb orthosis for people that have limited strength in their arms. This is symptomatic of conditions such as muscular dystrophy (MD), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and partial spinal cord injury. The exoskeletal orthosis is wheelchair mounted, has two links and four degrees(More)
Spatiotemporal arm and body movements of able-bodied subjects performing nine everyday tasks were recorded for the purpose of guiding the development of an upper-limb orthosis. To provide a user the opportunity to carry out these tasks with natural movements, the orthosis should allow replication of the measured trajectories. We outline the orthosis(More)
The authors analyzed the outcome of 2000 consecutive second-trimester amniocenteses. Seventy-three percent were performed for maternal age of 34 years or more. The risk of spontaneous abortion before 28 weeks' gestation was 1.3% and for stillbirth or neonatal death, 1.4%. Total fetal loss was 2.7%, compared with 2.2% in a control population. Congenital(More)
The prostates of eight patients scheduled to undergo prostatectomies were studied prospectively by transabdominal gray scale ultrasound and computed tomography. Computed tomography gave excellent visualization of prostate morphology and pelvic anatomic relationships. Ultrasound provided more histopathologic information in the cases of carcinoma and(More)