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We consider several possible interpretations of the "effect of race" when regressions are run with race as an exposure variable, controlling also for various confounding and mediating variables. When adjustment is made for socioeconomic status early in a person's life, we discuss under what contexts the regression coefficients for race can be interpreted as(More)
Adult obesity has shown little association with prostate cancer risk, but obesity at younger ages may be associated with reduced risk. In 1997-2000, the relation between obesity before age 30 years and incident advanced prostate cancer was investigated in a population-based case-control study of African-American and White men (568 cases, 544 controls) in(More)
Analysts often use different conceptual definitions of a cohort effect, and therefore different statistical methods, which lead to differing empirical results. A definition often used in sociology assumes that cohorts have unique characteristics confounded by age and period effects, whereas epidemiologists often conceive that period and age effects interact(More)
In countries undergoing nutrition transition and historically poor minority groups in wealthy countries, obesity tends to be more common in women than men. A potential contributor to this female excess of obesity is a mismatch between perinatal nutritional restriction and a later calorie-rich environment. Several epidemiologic and quasi-experimental studies(More)
BACKGROUND In the United States, black women are at much greater risk of obesity than are black men. Little is known about the factors underlying this disparity. OBJECTIVE We explored whether childhood sociodemographic factors (parental education, single-mother household, number of siblings, number of minors in household, birth order, and female(More)
BACKGROUND Although obesity is associated with breast cancer incidence and prognosis, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Identification of obesity-associated epigenetic changes in breast tissue may advance mechanistic understanding of breast cancer initiation and progression. The goal of this study, therefore, was to investigate associations(More)
It is believed that greater adiposity is associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal but increased risk in postmenopausal women. However, few studies have evaluated these relationships among Black women or examined anthropometric measures other than near-diagnosis body mass index (BMI). This study investigated associations between(More)
BACKGROUND Abdominal obesity predicts a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Over the past several decades, prevalence of abdominal obesity has increased markedly in industrialized countries like the United States No previous analyses, however, have evaluated whether there are birth cohort effects for abdominal obesity. Estimating cohort effects is(More)