Whitlow W. L. Au

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In bats and technological sonars, the gain of the receiver is progressively increased with time after the transmission of a signal to compensate for acoustic propagation loss. The current understanding of dolphin echolocation indicates that automatic gain control is not a part of their sonar system. In order to test this understanding, we have performed(More)
The echolocation transmission beam pattern of a false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) was measured in the vertical and horizontal planes. A vertical array of seven broadband miniature hydrophones was used to measure the beam pattern in the vertical plane and a horizontal array of the same hydrophones was used in the horizontal plane. The measurements(More)
The underwater hearing sensitivity of a two-year-old harbor porpoise was measured in a pool using standard psycho-acoustic techniques. The go/no-go response paradigm and up-down staircase psychometric method were used. Auditory sensitivity was measured by using narrow-band frequency-modulated signals having center frequencies between 250 Hz and 180 kHz. The(More)
The transmission beam pattern of an echolocating harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) was measured in both the vertical and horizontal planes. An array of seven Brüel and Kjaer 8103 hydrophones connected to an amplifier-line driver module was used to measure the beam patterns. The porpoise was trained to station in a hoop and echolocate a cylindrical target(More)
Dolphins echolocate with short broadband acoustic signals that have good time resolution properties. Received echoes are often complex, with many resolvable highlights or components caused by reflection of the incident signal from external and internal boundaries of a target and from different propagational modes within a target. A series of experiments was(More)
Spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) exhibit different social behaviours at two regions in the Hawaiian Archipelago: off the high volcanic islands in the SE archipelago they form dynamic groups with ever-changing membership, but in the low carbonate atolls in the NW archipelago they form long-term stable groups. To determine whether these environmental(More)
Studies have shown that pelagic predators do not overlap with their prey at small scales. However, we hypothesized that spinner dolphin foraging would be affected by the spatio-temporal dynamics of their prey at both small and large scales. A modified echosounder was used to simultaneously measure the abundance of dolphins and their prey as a function of(More)
An array of four hydrophones arranged in a symmetrical star configuration was used to measure the echolocation signals of the Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) in the Bahamas. The spacing between the center hydrophone and the other hydrophones was 45.7 cm. A video camera was attached to the array and a video tape recorder was time synchronized(More)
Keeping track of long-term biological trends in many marine habitats is a challenging task that is exacerbated when the habitats in question are in remote locations. Monitoring the ambient sound field may be a useful way of assessing biological activity because many behavioral processes are accompanied by sound production. This article reports the(More)
An experiment was conducted to investigate the sound pressure patterns on the melon of odontocetes by using four broadband hydrophones embedded in suction cups to measure echolocation signals on the surface of the forehead of two harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). It has long been hypothesized that the special lipids found in the melon of odontocetes,(More)