Wffliam S Dynan

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The equilibrium constant was determined for the binding of the transcription factor Sp1 to a single consensus GC box DNA recognition site, (5'-GGGGCGGGGC-3'). For these experiments, single copies of the recognition site were synthesized and cloned in a standard plasmid background. Binding was measured either by a footprinting assay modified so that the(More)
The carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II contains a tandemly repeated heptapeptide sequence. Previous work has shown that this sequence is phosphorylated at multiple sites by a template-associated protein kinase, in a reaction that is closely associated with the initiation of RNA synthesis. We have purified this kinase to apparent homogeneity from(More)
The Ku protein-DNA-dependent protein kinase system is one of the major pathways by which cells of higher eukaryotes respond to double-strand DNA breaks. The components of the system are evolutionarily conserved and homologs are known from a number of organisms. The Ku protein component binds directly to DNA ends and may help align them for ligation. Binding(More)
The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) consists of three polypeptide components: Ku-70, Ku-80, and an approximately 350-kDa catalytic subunit (p350). The gene encoding the Ku-80 subunit is identical to the x-ray-sensitive group 5 complementing gene XRCC5. Expression of the Ku-80 cDNA rescues both DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and V(D)J(More)
Ku protein, a heterodimer of 70 and 83 kDa polypeptides, is the regulatory component of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). Ku protein binds to DNA ends and is essential for DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. Although there is some evidence that Ku protein also binds RNA, its RNA binding properties have not been systematically(More)
We have recently shown that a template-associated protein kinase, which phosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II, is a two-component system. We describe here the purification of these two components to apparent homogeneity from human (HeLa) cell nuclear extract. Kinase component A has a 340-kDa native molecular mass, consists(More)
Ku protein and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) are essential components of the double-strand break repair machinery in higher eukaryotic cells. Ku protein binds to broken DNA ends and recruits DNA-PKcs to form an enzymatically active complex. To characterize the arrangement of proteins in this complex, we developed a set of(More)
The activation of heat shock transcription factor-1 (HSF-1) after treatment of mammalian cells with stresses such as heat shock, heavy metals, or ethanol induces the synthesis of heat shock proteins. HSF-1 is phosphorylated at normal growth temperature and is hyperphosphorylated upon stress. We recently presented evidence that HSF-1 can be phosphorylated by(More)
Isolated transcription complexes contain a protein kinase that phosphorylates the heptapeptide repeats of the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) large subunit in an apparently promoter-dependent manner. We now show that the essential features of this reaction can be reproduced in a reconstituted system containing three(More)
The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is a serine/threonine kinase linked to DNA repair and V(D)J recombination. It is composed of a 460-kDa catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and a 70/86-kDa heterodimeric regulatory component that is identical with the human autoantigen Ku. The regulatory subunit targets the catalytic subunit to the free ends of dsDNA(More)