Wesley W Holmes

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Sulfur mustard (SM [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide]) is a chemical warfare agent that causes skin blisters presumably due to DNA alkylation and cross-links. We recently showed that SM also induces apoptotic death in cultured normal human bronchial/tracheal epithelial (NHBE) cells and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) in vitro. In this process, caspases-8(More)
Mustard gas (sulfur mustard [SM], bis-[2-chloroethyl] sulfide) is a vesicating chemical warfare agent and a potential chemical terrorism agent. Exposure of SM causes debilitating skin blisters (vesication) and injury to the eyes and the respiratory tract; of these, the respiratory injury, if severe, may even be fatal. Therefore, developing an effective(More)
Toxic industrial chemicals are used throughout the world to produce everyday products such as household and commercial cleaners, disinfectants, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, plastics, paper, and fertilizers. These chemicals are produced, stored, and transported in large quantities, which poses a threat to the local civilian population in cases of accidental(More)
Phosgene (CG), a toxic inhalation and industrial hazard, causes bronchoconstriction, vasoconstriction and associated pathological effects that could be life threatening. Ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family have been identified to act as specific chemosensory molecules in the respiratory tract in the detection, control of adaptive(More)
Inhalation of sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes severe lung damage, is a significant threat to both military and civilian populations. The mechanisms mediating its cytotoxic effects are unknown and were investigated in the present studies. Male rats Crl:CD(SD) were anesthetized, and then intratracheally intubated and exposed(More)
Sulfur mustard (SM)-induced lung injury has been associated with protease activation, oxidative injury and inflammatory response culminating in tissue necrosis. The protease inhibitors aprotinin and ilomastat and the antioxidant trolox were evaluated for efficacy in ameliorating SM-induced lung injury. Anesthetized spontaneously breathing rats (N=6-8/group)(More)
RATIONALE Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical weapon stockpiled today in volatile regions of the world. SM inhalation causes a life-threatening airway injury characterized by airway obstruction from fibrin casts, which can lead to respiratory failure and death. Mortality in those requiring intubation is more than 80%. No therapy exists to prevent mortality(More)
Although best known as a blistering agent, sulfur mustard (HD) can also induce neutropenia in exposed individuals, increasing their susceptibility to infection. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and pegylated G-CSF (peg-G-CSF) have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as hematopoietic growth factors to treat(More)
Macrolide antibiotics have been shown to protect airway epithelial cells and macrophages from sulfur mustard (SM)-induced cytotoxicity. In the current study, the efficacy of roxithromycin in ameliorating SM-induced respiratory injury was further evaluated in a rat model. Anesthetized rats (N = 8/group) were intratracheally exposed to SM by vapor inhalation.(More)
Sulfur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, SM) is a powerful bi-functional vesicating chemical warfare agent. SM tissue injury is partially mediated by the overproduction of reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative stress. We hypothesized that using a catalytic antioxidant (AEOL 10150) to alleviate oxidative stress and secondary inflammation(More)