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BACKGROUND Pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) stimulation is a novel therapy for Parkinson disease. However, controversies remain regarding the clinical application of this new therapy, including patient selection, electrode positioning, and how best to assess outcomes. OBJECTIVE To clarify the clinical application of PPN stimulation in Parkinson disease. (More)
The pedunculopontine nucleus, a component of the reticular formation, is topographically organized in animal models and implicated in locomotor control. In Parkinson's disease, pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation is an emerging treatment for gait freezing. Local field potentials recorded from pedunculopontine nucleus electrodes in such patients have(More)
Gait freezing is an episodic arrest of locomotion due to an inability to take normal steps. Pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation is an emerging therapy proposed to improve gait freezing, even where refractory to medication. However, the efficacy and precise effects of pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation on Parkinsonian gait disturbance are not established.(More)
OBJECTIVES Attentional augmentation and enhanced motor function are potential mechanisms by which stimulation of the region of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) may improve gait in parkinsonism. Here, the authors assess the impact of stimulation of this region on attentional and motor aspects of reaction task performance in patients with parkinsonism. (More)
Gait freezing and postural instability are disabling features of Parkinsonian disorders, treatable with pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation. Both features are considered deficits of proximal and axial musculature, innervated predominantly by reticulospinal pathways and tend to manifest when gait and posture require adjustment. Adjustments to gait and(More)
BACKGROUND Unlike thalamic lesioning, thalamic stimulation is considered a reversible treatment for tremor. However, tremor in multiple sclerosis (MS) can sometimes permanently improve during thalamic stimulation. Such 'permanent tremor reduction' (PTR) has been attributed to limb weakness preventing tremor expression. In this study, 11 consecutive patients(More)
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy is an uncommon myopathy characterised clinically by cranial and distal limb muscle weakness. Here we describe two siblings with autosomal dominant oculopharyngodistal myopathy apparently associated with dilated cardiomyopathy, which in one case progressed to ventricular hypertrabeculation/non-compaction. Electrocardiographic(More)
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) region has received considerable attention in clinical studies as a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease. These studies have yielded variable results with an overall impression of improvement in falls and freezing in many but not all patients treated. We evaluated the available data on the surgical(More)