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We examine the problem of uniqueness in the relationship between the remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of ocean water. The results point to the fact that diffuse reflectance of plane irradiance from ocean water is inherently ambiguous. Furthermore, in the 400 < lambda < 750 nm region of the spectrum, Rrs(lambda)(More)
We present the results of a study of optical scattering and backscattering of particulates for three coastal sites that represent a wide range of optical properties that are found in U.S. near-shore waters. The 6000 scattering and backscattering spectra collected for this study can be well approximated by a power-law function of wavelength. The power-law(More)
Hyperion is a hyperspectral sensor on board NASA's EO-1 satellite with a spatial resolution of approximately 30 m and a swath width of about 7 km. It was originally designed for land applications, but its unique spectral configuration (430 nm – 2400 nm with a ~10 nm spectral resolution) and high spatial resolution make it attractive for studying complex(More)
A number of institutions, including the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), have developed look up tables for remote retrieval of bathymetry and in-water optical properties from hyperspectral imagery (HSI) [6]. For bathymetry retrieval, the lower limit is the very shallow water case (here defined as < 2m), a depth zone which is not well resolved by many(More)
MERIS imageries over coastal waters around the United States were ordered from ESA. These data either reveal enormous phytoplankton blooms (chlorophyll concentrations in the range of 100 – 1000 mg/m 3) or turbid river plume waters or optically shallow environments. We used in situ measurements to validate remote-sensing reflectance derived from MERIS.(More)
—For many oceanographic studies and applications, it is desirable to know the spectrum of the attenuation coefficient. For water of the vast ocean, an effective way to get information about this property is through satellite measurements of ocean color. Past and present satellite sensors designed for ocean-color measurements, however, can only provide data(More)
Acoustical and optical signal transmission underwater is of vital interest for both civilian and military applications. The range and signal to noise during the transmission, as a function of system and water optical properties, in terms of absorption and scattering, determines the effectiveness of deployed electro-optical (EO) technology. The impacts from(More)
It is a well-known fact that the major degradation source on electro-optical imaging underwater is from scattering by particles of various origins and sizes. Recent research indicates that, under certain conditions, the apparent degradation could also be caused by the variations of index of refraction associated with temperature and salinity microstructures(More)
Small-scale spatial variation in temperature can lead to localized changes in the index of refraction and can distort electro-optical (EO) signal transmission in ocean and atmosphere. This phenomenon is well-studied in the atmosphere, where it is generally called "optical turbulence". Less is known about how turbulent fluctuations in the ocean distort EO(More)
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