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Multi-version software systems achieve fault tolerance through somare redundancy and diversity. In order to investigate this approach, this joint UCLAIHoneywell research project investigated multi-version sojhvare systems, employing six different programming languages to create six versions of s o p a r e for an automatic landing program. The rationale,(More)
This paper presents a systematic methodology for the design of distributed fault tolerant real-time systems. The methodology covers the stepwise reenement of the given requirements, expressed in the form of real-time transactions, to task and protocol executions. It also includes a timing analysis and dependability evaluation of the still incomplete design.(More)
The systematic development of fault-tolerant real-time systems with guaranteed timeliness requires an appropriate system architecture and a rigorous design methodology. The rst part of this paper describes those services of the architecture that help to simplify the work of the real-time programmer, taking MARS as an example. The second part deals with(More)
BACKGROUND In peripheral airways, acetylcholine induces contraction via activation of muscarinic M2-and M3-receptor subtypes (M2R and M3R). Cholinergic hypersensitivity is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and therefore the identification of muscarinic signaling pathways are of great therapeutic interest. A pathway that has(More)
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