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Sponges (Porifera) represent the lowest metazoan phylum; they have been shown to be provided with the characteristic metazoan structural and functional molecules. One autapomorphic character of sponges is the presence of high levels of telomerase activity in all cells (or almost all cells, including somatic cells). In spite of this fact previous attempts to(More)
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) affects the growth and differentiation of many hemopoietic cells in vitro; in particular, it is a potent suppressor of macrophage and T cell functions. In IL-10-deficient mice, generated by gene targeting, lymphocyte development and antibody responses are normal, but most animals are growth retarded and anemic and suffer from chronic(More)
The international ImMunoGeneTics database (IMGT) (http://imgt.cines.fr), is a high quality integrated information system specializing in Immunoglobulins (IG), T cell Receptors (TR) and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of human and other vertebrates, created in 1989, by the Laboratoire d'ImmunoGénétique Moléculaire (LIGM), at the Université Montpellier(More)
We demonstrate that the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin is not only the major lipophilic chemical constituent of the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) but also a potent uptake inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), GABA and L-Glutamate with IC50 values of about 0.05-0.10 microg/ml (5-HT, NA, DA, GABA) and(More)
Tolerance to food antigen manifests in the absence and/or suppression of antigen-specific immune responses locally in the gut but also systemically, a phenomenon known as oral tolerance. Oral tolerance is thought to originate in the gut-draining lymph nodes, which support the generation of FoxP3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells. Here we use several mouse models(More)
The major skeletal elements in the (Porifera) sponges, are spicules formed from inorganic material. The spicules in the Demospongiae class are composed of hydrated, amorphous silica. Recently an enzyme, silicatein, which polymerizes alkoxide substrates to silica was described from the sponge Tethya aurantia. In the present study the cDNA encoding silicatein(More)
Porifera (sponge) form the lowest metazoan phylum and share a common ancestor with other metazoan phyla. In the present study, it is reported that sponges possess molecules that are similar in structure to those molecules involved in the immune system in mammals. Experiments with the marine sponges Geodia cydonium and Suberites domuncula have been performed(More)
We have characterized the progressive stages of chronic intestinal inflammation that develops spontaneously in specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice with a targeted disruption in the IL-10 gene (IL-10-/-). Our longitudinal studies showed that inflammatory changes first appear in the cecum, ascending and transverse colon of 3-wk-old mutants. As the disease(More)
Sponges (Porifera) representing the simplest metazoan phylum so far have been thought to possess no basal lamina tissue structures. One major extracellular matrix protein that is also a constitutive glycoprotein of the basal lamina is fibronectin. It was the aim of the present study to identify the native protein from the marine sponge Geodia cydonium and(More)
Recently the term Urmetazoa, as the hypothetical metazoan ancestor, was introduced to highlight the finding that all metazoan phyla including the Porifera (sponges) are derived from one common ancestor. Sponges as the evolutionarily oldest, still extant phylum, are provided with a complex network of structural and functional molecules. Analyses of sponge(More)