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127 Monograph It has been shown that several xenobiotics in the environment are capable of inducing adverse effects in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans, by interfering with the normal endocrine function of the organism (Colborn et al. 1993). Most studies have focused on endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that act as agonists at the(More)
Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) increase proton leakage across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Thereby, UCP1 in brown adipose tissue dissipates proton motive force as heat. This mechanism of nonshivering thermogenesis is considered as a monophyletic trait of endothermic placental mammals that emerged about 140 million years ago and provided a crucial advantage(More)
Although the invention and widespread use of artificial light is clearly one of the most important human technological advances, the transformation of nightscapes is increasingly recognized as having adverse effects. Night lighting may have serious physiological consequences for humans, ecological and evolutionary implications for animal and plant(More)
Debate and controversy exists concerning the potential for the herbicide atrazine to cause gonadal malformations in developing Xenopus laevis. Following review of the existing literature the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency required a rigorous investigation conducted under standardized procedures. X. laevis tadpoles were exposed to atrazine at(More)
The responses of interrenal and chromaffin tissues of carp to acetylcholine (Ach) and its agonists/antagonists were studied in an in vitro perifusion system of head kidney. There was a dose-dependent release of epinephrine and norepinephrine to Ach between 0.01 and 100 mM added for 15 min to the incubation medium. Cortisol secretion was also stimulated, but(More)
The distribution of binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and angiotensin II (A II) was investigated in the central nervous system (CNS) of the clawed toad Xenopus laevis by means of in vitro autoradiography using [125I]-rat ANF(99-126) or [125I] [Val5] A II and [125I]human A II as labeled ligands. The highest densities of specific ANF-binding(More)
Amphibian metamorphosis represents a promising model for the identification of thyroid system-disrupting chemicals due to the pivotal role played by thyroid hormones for the initiation and regulation of metamorphosis. An important aspect of bioassay development is the identification and evaluation of sensitive and diagnostic endpoints. In this study,(More)
There is accumulating evidence that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II are present in the mammalian ovary but comparable studies on bony fish remain scarce. Thus, the present study aims to analyse several parameters of the IGFs in the ovary of a bony fish, the tilapia, (Oreochromis mossambicus). Molecular biological and morphological techniques(More)
Vinclozolin (VIN) is an antiandrogenic model substance as well as a common fungicide that can affect the endocrine system of vertebrates. The objective of this study was to investigate how VIN affects mate calling behavior of South African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) and whether it is effective at environmentally relevant concentrations. Male X. laevis(More)