Werner Karrer

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The association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and respiratory symptoms was investigated in a cross-sectional study in random population samples of adults (aged 18 to 60 yr, n = 9,651) at eight study sites in Switzerland. Information on respiratory symptoms was obtained with an extended version of the European Community Respiratory(More)
The effect of long-term exposure to air pollutants was studied in a cross-sectional population-based sample of adults (aged 18 to 60 yr; n = 9,651) residing in eight different areas in Switzerland. Standardized medical examination included questionnaire data, lung function tests, skin-prick testing, and end-expiratory CO concentration. The impact of annual(More)
In this paper, we present results from the SAPALDIA study (Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults) regarding associations between lung function [forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)], as assessed during the cross-sectional study in 1991, and average levels of NO2 exposure within the eight study(More)
Total serum IgE, Phadiatop, and the skin prick test (SPT) are commonly used to diagnose atopic diseases. However, no large study has ever been done to test their diagnostic efficiency. We studied the diagnostic value of these three atopic markers in 8329 well-randomized adults from the Swiss Population Registry. The prevalence of current allergic asthma(More)
In Switzerland a family physician sees a case of tuberculosis only every 4-6 years. While tuberculosis does not seem to be a major medical challenge in western countries, it is a real problem in the developing world. Nevertheless, special situations do arise in the western hemisphere where the standard therapy needs to be changed. HIV-positive patients are(More)
BACKGROUND The feasibility of randomized trials often depends on successful patient recruitment. Although numerous recruitment barriers have been identified it is unclear which of them complicate recruitment most. Also, most surveys have focused on the patients' perspective of recruitment barriers whereas the perspective of recruiting physicians has(More)
SAPALDIA-the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung Diseases in Adults-focuses on the long term health effects of low to moderate levels of air pollutants as typically seen in different parts of Switzerland. The aim of the SAPALDIA cross-sectional study carried out in 1991 was to determine the prevalence of bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis and allergic(More)
The present analysis was directed at investigating associations between short-term variations in air pollutant levels (NO2, total suspended particulates [TSP], O3) and cross-sectional lung function (FVC, FEV1, and forced expiratory flow at 25% to 75% of FVC [FEF25-75]) within a random sample of 3,912 adult never-smokers from eight areas of Switzerland(More)
OBJECTIVE Whether underlying chronic respiratory diseases are susceptible factors for symptomatic episodes, which lead to primary-level care, in association with air pollutant exposures is unknown. We evaluated and compared association lag structures between daily ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and total suspended particulates (TSP) and(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a disorder characterised by expiratory airflow limitation that is not fully reversible [1]. The airflow limitation is usually slowly progressive and associated with an inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases. The airflow obstruction may be caused by structural alterations(More)